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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form 10-K
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2023
Or
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from           to          
Commission file number 1-12139
https://cdn.kscope.io/11f409389f2ba96c7b27727f60ebbafe-corporate-logos_descriptor_full-color.jpg
SEALED AIR CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware 65-0654331
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
2415 Cascade Pointe Boulevard 
CharlotteNorth Carolina28208
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (980)-221-3235
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
Common Stock, par value $0.10 per shareSEENew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes     No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act.    Yes  ☐    No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large Accelerated Filer   Accelerated filer Emerging growth company
    
Non-accelerated filer   Smaller reporting company 
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
If securities are registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act, indicate by check mark whether the financial statements of the registrant included in the filing reflect the correction of an error to previously issued financial statements.
Indicate by check mark whether any of those error corrections are restatements that required a recovery analysis of incentive-based compensation received by any of the registrant’s executive officers during the relevant recovery period pursuant to §240.10D-1(b). ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes      No  
As of the last business day of the registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter, June 30, 2023, the aggregate market value of the registrant’s common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $5,738,424,861, based on the closing sale price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange.
There were 144,493,719 shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.10 per share, issued and outstanding as of February 15, 2024.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE:
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2024 Annual Meeting of Stockholders are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.
 



SEALED AIR CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
Table of Contents
 
PART I
Item 1. 
Item 1A. 
Item 1B. 
Item 1C.
Item 2. 
Item 3. 
Item 4. 
  
PART II
Item 5. 
Item 6. 
Item 7. 
Item 7A. 
Item 8. 
Item 9. 
Item 9A. 
Item 9B. 
Item 9C.
   
PART III   
Item 10. 
Item 11. 
Item 12. 
Item 13. 
Item 14. 
   
PART IV
Item 15. 
Item 16.
  
 147

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Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This report contains “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 concerning our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. The Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) encourages companies to disclose forward-looking statements so that investors can better understand a company’s future prospects and make informed investment decisions. Forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties, many of which are outside our control, which could cause actual results to differ materially from these statements. Therefore, you should not rely on any of these forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements can be identified by such words as “anticipate,” “believe,” “plan,” “assume,” “could,” “should,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “potential,” “seek,” “predict,” “may,” “will” and similar references to future periods. All statements other than statements of historical facts included in this report regarding our strategies, prospects, financial condition, operations, costs, plans and objectives are forward-looking statements. Examples of forward-looking statements include, among others, statements we make regarding expected future operating results, expectations regarding the results of restructuring and other programs, expectations regarding future impacts resulting from the Liquibox (as defined in Note 5 to our Consolidated Financial Statements included in Part II, Item 8 of this report) acquisition, anticipated levels of capital expenditures and expectations of the effect on our financial condition of claims, litigation, environmental costs, contingent liabilities and governmental and regulatory investigations and proceedings.
Please refer to Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” for important factors that we believe could cause actual results to differ materially from those in our forward-looking statements. Any forward-looking statement made by us in this report is based only on information currently available to us and speaks only as of the date on which it is made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
The following are important factors that we believe could cause actual results to differ materially from those in our forward-looking statements: global economic and political conditions, including recessionary and inflationary pressures, currency translation and devaluation effects, changes in raw material pricing and availability, competitive conditions, the success of new product offerings, failure to realize synergies and other financial benefits from the acquisition of Liquibox within the expected time frames, greater than expected costs or difficulties related to the integration of Liquibox, consumer preferences, the effects of animal and food-related health issues, the effects of epidemics or pandemics, including the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), negative impacts related to the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine and related sanctions, export restrictions and other counteractions thereto, uncertainties relating to existing or potential increased hostilities in the Middle East, changes in energy costs, environmental matters, the success of our restructuring activities, the success of our merger, acquisition and equity investment strategies, the success of our financial growth, profitability, cash generation and manufacturing strategies and our cost reduction and productivity efforts, changes in our credit ratings, regulatory actions and legal matters, and the other information referenced in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors.” Any forward-looking statement made by us is based only on information currently available to us and speaks only as of the date on which it is made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements, whether written or oral, that may be made from time to time, whether as a result of new information, future developments or otherwise.
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PART I
Item 1. Business
The Company: SEE
Our PurposeWe are in business to protect,
to solve critical packaging challenges, and
to make our world better than we find it.
Sealed Air Corporation (“SEE”, “Sealed Air”, or the “Company”, also referred to as “we”, “us”, or “our”) is a leading global provider of packaging solutions that integrate sustainable, high-performance materials, automation, equipment and services. SEE designs, manufactures and delivers packaging solutions that preserve food, protect goods and automate packaging processes. We deliver our packaging solutions to an array of end markets including fresh proteins, foods, fluids and liquids, medical and life science, e-commerce retail, logistics and omnichannel fulfillment operations, and industrials. In February 2023, we acquired Liquibox and expanded our product offerings to liquid packaging and dispensing solutions for food, beverage, consumer goods and industrial end markets.
Our portfolio of solutions includes leading brands such as CRYOVAC® brand food packaging, LIQUIBOX® brand liquids systems, SEALED AIR® brand protective packaging, AUTOBAG® brand automated packaging systems and BUBBLE WRAP® brand packaging.
We have two reportable segments, Food and Protective. Liquibox is included in our Food reporting segment. Refer to “Reportable Segments” below for additional information.
In 2023, we generated net sales of $5.5 billion, net earnings from continuing operations of $339 million, and net cash provided by operating activities of $516 million. Please refer to Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for financial information about the Company and its subsidiaries, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Our VisionTo become a world-class sustainable automated packaging solutions provider, partnering with our customers to solve their most critical food and protective packaging needs
Our strategy focuses on creating long-term, value-added partnerships with our customers to advance sustainable, automated and digital packaging solutions, leveraging our industry-leading expertise in materials, automation systems, engineering and technologies. Our strategy is enabled by our balanced capital allocation approach that is designed to maximize value for our shareholders with the goal to deliver above-market profitable organic growth and attractive returns on invested capital while strengthening our balance sheet through the repayment of debt.
CTO2Grow: Accelerating growth by relentless focus on productivity and cost efficiency
The cost take-out to grow program (“CTO2Grow Program”) was launched in 2023 and targets annualized savings of $140 to $160 million by the end of 2025. The CTO2Grow Program seeks to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of our solutions-focused go-to-market organization, optimize our portfolio with a focus on automation, digital and sustainable solutions, streamline our supply chain footprint and drive selling, general and administrative (“SG&A”) productivity. Our CTO2Grow program focuses on:
SEE Operational Excellence and cost reduction initiatives: Increasing focus on world-class operations, zero-harm, flawless quality, on-time delivery, network optimization, and productivity improvements.
Accelerate growth: Streamlining our commercial organization to improve commercial effectiveness and growth outlook by allocating resources closer to our customers within our distinct Food and Protective end markets. Continuing to lead with automation and provide our customers with a single point of contact for both materials and equipment.
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Portfolio optimization efforts: Aligning our portfolio of products with our longer-term strategy to develop sustainable, automated, digital packaging solutions that drive above market growth. For non-core portfolios, determining the best path forward to unlock value.
Innovate and advance sustainability: Leveraging the voice of our customers and market insights to accelerate the development of sustainable and automated packaging solutions that meet our rapidly evolving end market needs.
Competitive Strengths
Our growth strategy leverages our competitive strengths in high-performance packaging solutions, well-established customer relationships, iconic brands, and global scale and market access.
High-performance Packaging Solutions. For food industries we provide packaging materials, automated equipment, and services that extend shelf life, ensure safety, and enhance brand image and shelf impact, while driving operational excellence by eliminating waste, increasing processing speeds and reducing customers’ labor dependency. Within e-commerce and industrial markets, we offer a broad range of protective packaging materials and automation solutions designed to prevent product damage, increase order fulfillment velocity, and generate savings through reductions in waste, dimensional weight and labor.
Well-established Customer Relationships. We have a broad and diversified customer base which includes the world’s leading food processors, e-commerce/fulfillment companies and industrial manufacturers. We seek to create long-term relationships with leaders in the markets we serve. We leverage extensive knowledge of our customers’ businesses when innovating new solutions, and partner with customers to effectively implement our solutions and automate their operations. Our customer base is diverse, with no single customer or affiliated group of customers representing more than 10% of net sales in 2023, 2022 or 2021.
Iconic Brands. Our portfolio of leading packaging solutions includes CRYOVAC® brand food packaging, LIQUIBOX® brand liquids systems, SEALED AIR® brand protective packaging, AUTOBAG® brand automated systems and BUBBLE WRAP® brand packaging. Our iconic brands represent long-tenured leadership in the packaging industry and are propelling us forward into the future. We strive to ensure these brands continue to represent our commitment to deliver safety, security, performance and innovation.
Global Scale and Market Access. SEE serves a diverse global customer base with a sales and distribution network reaching 115 countries/territories. In 2023, 47% of net sales were from outside the U.S. Our global scale and agility have enabled us to address the evolving customer needs across our end markets and geographies and position us to capitalize on growth opportunities in markets around the world. We operate through our subsidiaries and have a presence in the U.S. and 45 other countries/territories listed below.
ArgentinaCzech RepublicIrelandPeruSpain
AustraliaDenmarkItalyPhilippinesSweden
BelgiumFinlandJapanPolandSwitzerland
BrazilFranceLuxembourgPortugalTaiwan
CanadaGermanyMalaysiaRussiaThailand
ChileGreeceMexicoSingaporeUnited Arab Emirates
ChinaGuatemalaNetherlandsSlovakiaUnited Kingdom
ColombiaHungaryNew ZealandSouth AfricaUruguay
Costa RicaIndiaNorwaySouth KoreaVietnam
We face risks inherent in these international operations, such as currency fluctuations, supply chain disruptions, inflation and political instability. Information on currency exchange risk appears in Part II, Item 7A, “Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference. Other risks attendant to our international operations are set forth in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference. Information on the impact of currency exchange on our Consolidated Financial Statements appears in Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.” Financial information showing net sales for the year ended December 31, 2023 and total long-lived assets by geographic region as of December 31, 2023 appears in Note 6, “Segments,” set forth in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data,” which is incorporated herein by reference.
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Intellectual Property
We are the owner or licensee of approximately 2,540 U.S. and foreign patents and patent applications, and approximately 2,360 U.S. and foreign trademark registrations and trademark applications that relate to our products, manufacturing processes and equipment. Our business is not dependent upon any single patent or trademark alone. The expiration or unenforceability of any single one of our patents, applications, licenses or trademark registrations would not be material to our business or our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Innovation, Research and Development
Our innovation, research and development capabilities encompass a broad range of disciplines including food science, materials science, chemical, mechanical, electrical and software engineering, microbiology, digital applications development, digital printing, and packaging automation equipment design and engineering.
Our research and development expense was $97 million in 2023, $103 million in 2022 and $100 million in 2021. As we progress in the CTO2Grow Program, we are looking to leverage the voice of our customers and market insights to accelerate the development of sustainable and automated packaging solutions that meet our rapidly evolving end market needs.
Sustainability
Sustainability is embedded in our business strategy. We combine a diverse range of materials with a multitude of equipment offerings to produce solutions that minimize the use of resources and maximize productivity. Specifically, we employ a comprehensive approach that reduces waste, lowers greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, prevents product damage and decreases the negative impact of transport for our customers and within our own operations. We strive to improve the circular economy by working with customers and suppliers to drive recycling and eliminate waste.
Sustainable solutions for our customers. We design and manufacture solutions that deliver the essential attributes of packaging without compromising performance. Our solutions reduce environmental impacts by decreasing product damage, preventing food waste and increasing transport efficiency. We are committed to designing and advancing packaging solutions that are recyclable or reusable and eliminating waste by incorporating recycled or renewable content across our portfolio. Finally, we are increasing circularity by collaborating with our customers and suppliers to drive innovation in recovering and recycling materials.
Stewardship and reducing resource waste. Within our own operations, we are focused on reducing energy-intensity, diverting manufacturing waste from landfill and external incineration, and achieving water intensity reductions.
We have a strategy to mitigate climate change with approved Science Based Targets for 2030, in line with the Science Based Targets initiative ("SBTi"), for Scopes 1 and 2 GHG emissions. We have set a goal to achieve net-zero carbon dioxide emissions across our operations (Scopes 1 and 2) by 2040. We have a transition plan that outlines the actions we will take to reduce energy consumption, increase efficiencies in our operations, and explore renewable energy opportunities for our manufacturing facilities across the globe. Meeting our net-zero carbon dioxide emissions pledge will require significant capital investment in our operations. We also may invest in renewable energy solutions, energy conservation measures, carbon offsets, or similar programs to reach our goals.
We face risks inherent in achieving our sustainability goals, such as the cost for each initiative, changes in regulations and policies, and the availability of resources (including renewable energy credits, renewable energy sources, and carbon offsets), among others. Other risks attendant to the environment and climate change are set forth in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated herein by reference.
Human Capital
Overview
Our business strategy and outcomes are executed by our dedicated employees. We recognize the important roles our people play in realizing our purpose; shaping a caring, high-performance organization and culture; and delivering world-class packaging solutions, experiences and opportunities for our customers and stakeholders.
SEE's management regularly reports and discusses our workforce and people management strategies and related matters with our Board of Directors and the People and Compensation Committee (formerly the Organization and Compensation Committee), or "P&C Committee", of the Board of Directors, including matters related to compensation, succession planning, corporate culture, employee engagement, and diversity, equity and inclusion (“DEI”).
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As of December 31, 2023, our employee population was approximately 17,000 people. The largest component of SEE's workforce is approximately 10,800 direct manufacturing employees in our manufacturing facilities. We also generally employ:
Marketing, sales, business development and technical packaging solutions professionals who work in the field and at our customers' facilities;
Innovation, research and development, digital, automation and sustainability focused employees who work in our Packaging Solutions Development and Innovation Centers; and
Customer service and support personnel as well as administrative and management employees who work in our offices and in remote environments.
As of December 31, 2023, we had approximately 7,200 employees in the U.S. and approximately 9,800 employees outside the U.S. Our workforce is relatively stable and does not experience significant seasonal fluctuations.
We had approximately 5,000 employees (close to 30% of total employee population and primarily outside the U.S.) who were covered by collective bargaining agreements as of December 31, 2023. Many of the covered employees are represented by works councils or industrial boards, as is customary in the jurisdictions in which they are employed. The collective bargaining agreements covering approximately 42% of such employees will expire during 2024, and we will be engaged in negotiations to attain new agreements, which is consistent with prior years. We did not experience any significant union-related work stoppages during 2023 and believe we have satisfactory labor relations with our employees.
Culture
SEE strives to foster a caring, high-performance growth culture that will deliver consistent, sustainable profitable growth and accelerate our performance – a culture where accountability is clear and aligned, and where we reward business outcomes and impact. Our culture guides everything we do – how we partner with our customers and suppliers, attract and retain top talent, and create value for our stakeholders.
SEE is committed to attracting, selecting, and developing talent that reflects the diversity of the communities and customers we serve. Our talent acquisition and development processes ensure we select, infuse, and grow talent to align with our culture, values, and norms. SEE prioritizes talent development, fostering a culture of continuous growth and career progression. Our people leaders inform and shape development by identifying high-potential and critical talent building differentiated development plans in our talent review and succession planning process.
Values, Code of Conduct and Ethics
Our values represent the fundamental beliefs upon which we aim to base our business and behaviors.
Our Core Values
IntegrityDeterminedCollaborativeInnovative
Every day, we intentionally choose to do the right thing no matter the circumstance.We are empowered to deliver on our commitments.
We operate based on mutual trust and encourage diverse thinking to achieve a common objective.
We think without limits to solve customer, company and societal challenges.
The Company maintains a written Code of Conduct which reflects our purpose and values as an organization and how we should act. It encourages all employees to promote an ethical culture and to recognize and report integrity and compliance issues. Our Code of Conduct guides us in how to manage our daily processes and interactions with professionalism, respect, and integrity. Employees attest annually to reviewing and adhering to the Code of Conduct.
Employees receive regular online education as part of enhanced global ethics and compliance programs. This training includes required and monitored course training for employees in specific roles based on associated risk and function. Required sessions include the Code of Conduct, anti-bribery, anti-corruption, conflicts of interest, and workplace respect, among other legal and compliance subject matters.
Health and Safety
As a company with manufacturing operations across the world, protecting the health, safety and well-being of our people is a top priority. We have a goal of zero-harm and we intentionally manage our operations to provide employees with a safe and healthy working environment.
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We maintain an Environmental, Health and Safety ("EHS") policy which outlines the Company’s commitment to integrate EHS principles in all aspects of the business including products, operations, and supply chain. The policy requires our employees and contractors to conduct business in accordance with applicable environmental, health and safety laws and understand and comply with company procedures and guidelines to protect the environment, health and safety of themselves and their co-workers.
We have a formal monthly process in place at the regional and global level for managing, tracking, and reporting health and safety which includes incident analysis meetings that are conducted with leadership.
Our global safety training program includes more than 150 preventive courses including behavioral-based safety training, hazard identification, and risk assessment. All employees are trained before starting their job. Additionally, we provide a training program with access to multiple customized training courses that educate our employees on the safe execution of their jobs in an environmentally responsible manner.
All operations are required to implement the relevant elements of our EHS Management System. Implementation of EHS standards and guidelines takes place at the facility and office levels and is assessed through a periodic review process.
Recruiting, Retaining and Engaging Employees and Learning and Development
Our success depends on our ability to attract, recruit, develop and retain employees with the desired expertise and talent.
We deploy systems and processes to strengthen the skills, capabilities, and leadership potential of our employees. Employees have access to online tools to support ongoing learning and development and career growth. Additionally, the Company sponsors leadership programs designed to impact effectiveness across multiple levels of management from front line supervisors to executive leaders.
Diversity, Equity and Inclusion
We are a global company with an employee population representing a broad diversity of cultures, languages, ethnicities, and races. We recognize the value of workplace diversity and support an inclusive culture across the globe. We evaluate talent acquisition, performance management, employee experience, career development, and succession planning processes to identify and remove unintended biases and facilitate increased diversity of our leadership talent pipeline.
Our DEI Pledge and 2025 Goals encompass the following:
Build a more inclusive culture with our employees across the globe;
Increase gender diversity across employees globally to more than 30%;
Increase the representation of racial and ethnic minorities in our U.S. workforce to above 35%;
Lead with a senior leadership team that reflects the cultural diversity of our global footprint; and
Champion equal pay for work of equal value across our organization.
As of December 31, 2023, 26% of our global employee base are female and 35% of our U.S. workforce identify with a racial and/or ethnic minority group. Biannually, SEE conducts a global comprehensive pay equity analysis to identify compensation disparities by gender across the world and by ethnic and racial diversity within the U.S. Identified inequities are mitigated to close the gaps, and compensation processes are evaluated for unintended bias and continuously improved to prevent future adverse impact.
Voice of the Workforce
During 2023, we conducted a global employee belonging survey, reaffirming our commitment to listening, learning, and implementing improvements to enhance our workplace environment. The survey was focused on employee engagement and perception of belonging and inclusion at SEE. This survey equips leaders at all levels with valuable data and insights to assess our culture efforts and determine the ways we can continue to improve. Management is focused on continuously improving our employees’ overall sense of belonging, as measured through the annual employee survey.
Reportable Segments
We report our segment information in accordance with the provisions of Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 280, “Segment Reporting,” (“FASB ASC Topic 280”). See Note 6, “Segments,” set forth in Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” for further information.
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Food
Food solutions are sold to food processors in fresh red meat, smoked and processed meats, poultry, seafood, plant-based protein, fluids and liquids and cheese markets worldwide. Food offers integrated packaging materials and automated equipment solutions to increase food safety, extend shelf life, reduce food waste, automate processes, and optimize total cost. Its materials, automated equipment and service enable customers to reduce costs and enhance their brands in the marketplace.
Food solutions are utilized by food service businesses (such as restaurants and entertainment venues) (“food service”) and food retailers (such as grocery stores and supermarkets) (“food retail”), among others. Solutions serving the food service market include products such as barrier bags and pouches, and are primarily marketed under the CRYOVAC® trademark and other highly recognized trade names including CRYOVAC® brand Barrier Bags, CRYOVAC® brand Form-Fill-Seal Films, CRYOVAC® brand Auto Pouch Systems and LIQUIBOX® brand liquids systems. Solutions serving the food retail market include products such as barrier bags, film, and trays, and are primarily marketed under the CRYOVAC® trademark and other highly recognized trade names including CRYOVAC® brand Grip & Tear™, CRYOVAC® brand Darfresh®, OptiDure™, Simple Steps®, and CRYOVAC® brand Barrier Bags.
Food solutions are well aligned to capitalize on global market dynamics driven by increasing labor scarcity and automation, continued urbanization, growth in ship-to-home food services, growing consumer preference for smaller portions and healthier food choices, and demand for more sustainable, secure packaging. Our solutions, which include high-performance materials, equipment, and services, are designed to extend shelf life and enhance food safety.
Food applications are largely sold direct to customers by our sales, marketing and customer service personnel throughout the world. Sales to governments, or government contracts, are not material to our Food segment. No single customer or affiliated group of customers represented more than 10% of segment revenue in 2023.
There are other manufacturers of products similar to those produced by Food, some that operate across multiple regions and others that operate in a single region or single country. Competing manufacturers produce a wide variety of food packaging based on plastic, metals and other materials.
Protective
Protective packaging solutions are utilized across many global markets to protect goods during transit and are especially valuable to e-commerce, consumer goods, pharmaceutical and medical devices and industrial manufacturing. With automated equipment, high-performance materials, and services, our solutions are designed to increase our customers' packaging velocity, minimize packaging waste, reduce labor dependencies and address dimensional weight challenges. Our product breadth combined with our global scale and reach helps support our customers' needs for sustainability, performance excellence, consistency and reliability of supply wherever they operate around the world.
Protective solutions are marketed under SEALED AIR® brand, BUBBLE WRAP® brand, AUTOBAG® brand and other highly recognized trade names and product families including BUBBLE WRAP® brand inflatable packaging, SEALED AIR® brand performance shrink films, AUTOBAG® brand bagging systems, Instapak® polyurethane foam packaging solutions and Korrvu® suspension and retention packaging.
Protective solutions are sold through a strategic network of distributors as well as directly to end customers, including, but not limited to, fabricators, original equipment manufacturers, contract manufacturers, logistics partners and e-commerce/fulfillment operations. In 2023, approximately 50% of our Protective sales were sold through distributors. We generally do not impose annual minimum purchase volume requirements on our distributors. Product returns from our distributors in 2023 were not material. Sales to governments, or government contracts, are not material to our Protective segment. No single customer or affiliated group of customers represented more than 10% of segment revenue in 2023.
There are other manufacturers of products similar to those produced by Protective. Competing manufacturers produce a wide variety of protective packaging based on plastic, molded pulp, corrugated boxes and die cuts and other materials. We believe that some of our direct competition within the protective packaging industry has a less diversified global presence.
A focus on materials circularity, sustainability, and automation and equipment offerings will continue to define the direction of the competitive landscape into the future for both segments. Additionally, some of our Food and Protective competitors have been consolidating in recent years or have been involved in significant merger and acquisition activity, and this trend may continue.
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Raw Materials and Purchasing
Suppliers provide raw materials, packaging components, contract manufactured goods, equipment and other direct materials, such as inks, films and paper. Our principal raw materials are polyolefin and other petrochemical-based resins, as well as paper pulp products. Raw materials typically represent approximately one-third of our consolidated cost of sales. We also purchase corrugated materials, cores for rolls of products such as films and BUBBLE WRAP® brand cushioning, inks for printed materials, and blowing agents used in the expansion of foam packaging products. In addition, we offer a wide variety of specialized packaging equipment, some of which we manufacture or have manufactured to our specifications, some of which we assemble and some of which we purchase from suppliers. Automated equipment and accessories are designed for e-commerce fulfillment centers, industrial and food packaging equipment.
The vast majority of the raw materials required for the manufacture of our products and all components related to our equipment and accessories generally have been readily available on the open market and, in most cases, are available from several suppliers and in amounts sufficient to meet our manufacturing requirements. However, in some regions we rely on some sole-source suppliers, and we seek to mitigate the associated risks through our global inventory and supply agreements. Some materials used to manufacture our packaging products are sourced from recycled content from our operations or are obtained through our participation in recycling programs. Natural disasters such as hurricanes, tornados, earthquakes or other severe weather events, as well as political instability and terrorist activities, may negatively impact the production or delivery capabilities of refineries and natural gas and petrochemical suppliers and suppliers of other raw materials. Due to by-product/co-product chemical relationships to the automotive and housing markets, several materials may become difficult to source. These factors could lead to increased prices for our raw materials, curtailment of supplies, allocation of raw materials and other force majeure events by our suppliers.
We have a centralized supply chain organization, which includes centralized management of purchasing and logistic activities. Our objective is to leverage our global scale to achieve purchasing efficiencies and reduce our total delivered cost across all our regions. We do this while adhering to strategic performance metrics and stringent purchasing practices. Although we purchase some raw materials under long-term supply arrangements with third parties, these arrangements follow market forces and are in line with our overall global purchasing strategy, which seeks to balance the cost of acquisition and availability of supply.
Seasonality
On a consolidated basis, there is minimal seasonality in the business. Historically, net sales have been slightly lower in the first quarter and slightly higher towards the end of the third quarter through the fourth quarter. Our consolidated results of operations have trended directionally the same as our net sales seasonality. Net sales in our Food segment have tended to be slightly lower in the first quarter and slightly higher towards the end of the third quarter through the fourth quarter, due to holiday events, and net sales in our Protective segment have also tended to be slightly lower in the first quarter and higher in the mid-third quarter and through the fourth quarter due to the holiday shopping season. Cash flow from operations has tended to be lower in the first quarter and higher in the fourth quarter, reflecting seasonality of sales and working capital changes, including the timing of certain annual incentive compensation payments. However, the extent and timing of our results of operations may be difficult to predict if significant one-time transactions, events or non-recurring charges were to impact our business. Additionally, changes in end-consumer behavior have in the past impacted the timing and seasonality of results of operations.
In 2023, we experienced slightly higher net sales in the second half of the year as compared to the first half which was partially due to the impact of foreign currency translation and the timing of the Liquibox acquisition. Our consolidated results of operations trended directionally the same as our net sales seasonality with slightly higher results of operations in the second half of the year. Refer to Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for additional discussion of our 2023 results.
Compliance with Government Regulations
As a manufacturer, we are subject to various laws, rules and regulations in the countries/territories, jurisdictions and localities in which we operate. These cover, among other things, the safe storage and use of raw materials and production chemicals, the release of materials into the environment, and standards for the treatment, storage and disposal of solid and hazardous wastes. We have an environmental management system that aids in our management of environmental, health and safety matters pertaining to our operations. Key elements of this environmental management system are implemented throughout our
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operations. We believe that compliance with current environmental and workplace health and safety laws and regulations has not had a material effect on our capital expenditures or consolidated financial condition.
In some jurisdictions in which our packaging products are sold or used, laws and regulations have been adopted or proposed that seek to regulate, among other things, minimum levels of recycled or reprocessed content and, more generally, the sale or disposal of packaging materials. In the European Union (EU), we have registered manufacturing plants and production lines as required by relevant regulation for manufacturing products that incorporate recycled content. We maintain programs designed to comply with these laws and regulations and to monitor their evolution. Various federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations regulate some of our products and require us to register certain products and comply with specified requirements. We are also subject to various federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations that regulate products manufactured and sold by us for controlling microbial growth on humans, animals and processed foods. In the U.S., these requirements are generally administered by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”). To date, the cost of complying with product registration requirements and FDA compliance, and similar non-U.S. laws, has not had a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We are subject to various federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations which ensure safe working conditions for our employees. In the U.S., these requirements are generally administered by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (“OSHA”). To date, the cost of complying with worker safety requirements and OSHA compliance, and similar non-U.S. laws, has not had a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Our emphasis on environmental, health and safety compliance provides us with risk reduction opportunities and cost savings through asset protection and protection of employees. We have policies in place which guide the Company in environmental, health and safety matters including training, materials conservation, communications, targets and transparency.
Certain U.S. states have passed laws for Extended Producer Responsibility ("EPR"). EPR laws also exist in many other countries where we do business including the EU and Canada. In addition, the EU is revising the packaging and packaging waste directive that may have an impact on existing EPR schemes. We continue to monitor regulatory developments, including within those regions for which we may be subject to EPR fees starting in 2024.
Certain U.S. states have passed laws regulating the use of per and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in food packaging materials. In addition, the EU, Australia, and Canada have either passed laws or expressed intent to regulate PFAS in packaging materials. Currently, we are in compliance with U.S. regulations and have reformulated certain of our U.S. food packaging products to be in compliance with anticipated regulations. We are continuing the effort to extend those actions to product formulations in other regions to comply with future requirements. To the best of our knowledge, we are in compliance with all current global regulations regarding the use of PFAS.
Additionally, certain countries have adopted legislations that impose taxes on plastic packaging materials, which apply to some of our materials or products. For example, such legislations went into effect in the United Kingdom (UK) in 2022 and Spain in 2023.
We maintain programs to comply with the various laws, rules and regulations related to the protection of the environment that we may be subject to in the many countries/territories in which we operate. See Part II, Item 7, “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” under the caption “Environmental Matters.”
Available Information
Our Internet address is www.sealedair.com. We make available, free of charge, on or through our website, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports that we file or furnish pursuant to Sections 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, or the Exchange Act, as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file these materials with, or furnish them to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The SEC maintains an Internet site that contains these filings and they can be accessed via the Internet address https://www.sec.gov. The information contained on, or that may be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into, and is not a part of, this Form 10-K.
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Item 1A. Risk Factors
Introduction
The risks described below should be carefully considered before making an investment decision. These are the most significant risk factors, but they are not the only risk factors that should be considered in making an investment decision. This Form 10-K also contains and may incorporate by reference forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. See the “Cautionary Notice Regarding Forward-Looking Statements,” immediately preceding Part I of this Form 10-K. Our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows could be materially adversely affected by any of these risks. The trading price of our securities could decline due to any of these risks, and investors in our securities may lose all or part of their investment.
Strategic Risks
The global nature of our operations exposes us to numerous risks that could materially adversely affect our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We operate in 46 countries/territories, and our products are distributed in 115 countries/territories around the world. A large portion of our manufacturing operations are located outside of the U.S., and in 2023, 47% of our net sales were generated outside of the U.S. These operations, particularly those in developing regions, are subject to various risks that may not be present in or as significant for our U.S. operations. Economic uncertainty in some of the geographic regions in which we operate, including developing regions, could result in the disruption of commerce and negatively impact cash flows from our operations in those markets.
Risks inherent in our international operations include:
inflationary pressures, including wage inflation and input cost inflation, as well as the impact of fiscal policy interventions by national or regional governments to control inflation;
foreign currency exchange controls and tax rates;
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, including devaluations;
adverse impacts resulting from regional or global human health related illnesses;
restrictive governmental actions such as those on transfer or repatriation of funds and trade protection matters, including anti-dumping duties, tariffs, embargoes, sanctions and prohibitions or restrictions on acquisitions or joint ventures;
changes in laws and regulations, including the laws and policies of the U.S. and foreign countries affecting trade and foreign investment;
the impact of customer perceptions or regulatory developments related to sustainability concerns;
the difficulty of enforcing agreements and collecting receivables through certain foreign legal systems;
variations in protection of intellectual property and other legal rights;
more expansive legal rights of foreign unions or works councils;
changes in labor conditions and difficulties in staffing and managing international operations;
import and export delays caused, for example, by an extended strike at the port of entry, could cause a delay in our supply chain operations;
social plans that prohibit or increase the cost of certain restructuring actions;
the potential for governmental actions that may result in expropriation or nationalization of our facilities or other assets in that country;
unsettled political conditions and possible terrorist attacks against U.S. or other interests; and
potential tax inefficiencies and tax costs in repatriating funds from our non-U.S. subsidiaries.
These and other factors may have a material adverse effect on our international operations and, consequently, on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Uncertain global economic conditions may have an adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
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Uncertain global economic conditions, including the impact of inflationary pressure and general economic slowdowns across the global economy, may have an adverse impact on our business in the form of lower volumes sold due to weakened demand, unfavorable changes in product price/mix, or lower profit margins. For example, in the past, global economic downturns have adversely impacted some of our customers and end-users, such as food processors, distributors, supermarket retailers, restaurants, industrial manufacturers, retail establishments, business service contractors and e-commerce and mail order fulfillment firms, and other end-users that are particularly sensitive to business and consumer spending. Our production levels and inventory management goals for our products are based on estimates of demand, taking into account production capacity, timing of shipments and inventory levels. If market conditions change, resulting in us overestimating or underestimating demand for any of our products during a given season, we may not maintain appropriate inventory levels, which could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operation.
During economic downturns or recessions, there can be a heightened competition for sales and increased pressure to reduce selling prices as our customers may reduce their volume of purchases from us. If we lose significant sales volume or reduce selling prices significantly, there could be a negative impact on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, profitability or cash flows.
Also, reduced availability of credit may adversely affect the ability of some of our customers and suppliers to obtain funds for operations and capital expenditures. This could negatively impact our ability to obtain necessary supplies as well as our sales of materials and equipment to affected customers. This could also result in reduced or delayed collections of outstanding accounts receivable.
We experience competition in the markets for our products and services and in the geographic areas in which we operate.
Our packaging products and equipment solution offerings compete with similar products made by other manufacturers and with a number of other types of materials or products. We compete on the basis of performance characteristics of our products, as well as service, price, sustainability and innovations in technology. A number of competing domestic and foreign companies are well-established.
Customers in the e-commerce and food service industry and peers in the packaging industry have been consolidating in recent years, which may continue in the future. Such consolidation could have an adverse impact on the pricing of our products and services and our ability to retain customers, which could in turn adversely affect our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Our inability to maintain a competitive advantage could result in lower prices or lower sales volumes for our products. Additionally, we may not successfully implement our pricing actions. These factors may have an adverse impact on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Acquisitions present many risks, and we may not achieve the financial and strategic goals that were contemplated at the time of a transaction.
We review and consider strategic acquisitions from time to time. Any acquisitions we may undertake, including the Liquibox acquisition, and their integration involves risks and uncertainties, such as:
our ongoing business may be disrupted and our management’s attention may be diverted by acquisition, transition or integration activities;
we may have difficulties (1) managing an acquired company’s technologies or lines of business; (2) entering new markets where we have no, or limited, direct prior experience or where competitors may have stronger market positions; or (3) retaining key personnel from the acquired companies;
an acquisition may not further our business strategy as we expected, we may not integrate an acquired company or technology as successfully as we expected, we may impose our business practices or alter go-to-market strategies that adversely impact the acquired business or we may overpay for, or otherwise not realize the expected return on our investments, each or all of which could adversely affect our business or operating results and potentially cause impairment to assets that we recorded as a part of an acquisition, including intangible assets and goodwill;
our operating results or financial condition may be adversely impacted by (1) claims or liabilities that we assume from an acquired company or technology or that are otherwise related to an acquisition; (2) pre-existing contractual relationships that we assume from an acquired company, the termination or modification of which may be costly or disruptive to our business; and (3) unfavorable revenue recognition or other accounting treatment as a result of an acquired company’s business practices;
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we may not realize any anticipated increase in our revenues from an acquisition for a number of reasons, including (1) if a larger than predicted number of customers decline to renew or terminate their contracts with the acquired company; (2) if we are unable to sell the acquired products or service offerings to our customer base; (3) if acquired customers do not elect to purchase our technologies due to differing business practices; or (4) if contract models utilized by an acquired company do not allow us to recognize revenues in a manner that is consistent with our current accounting practices;
we may encounter deficiencies in internal controls at the acquired business, as well as when implementing our own management information systems, operating systems and internal controls for the acquired operations;
our due diligence process may fail to identify significant issues with the acquired business’ products, financial disclosures, accounting practices, legal, tax and other contingencies, compliance with local laws and regulations (and interpretations thereof) in the U.S. and multiple international jurisdictions;
additional acquisition-related debt could increase our leverage and potentially negatively affect our credit ratings resulting in more restrictive borrowing terms or increased borrowing costs thereby limiting our ability to borrow; and
inaccuracies in our original estimates and assumptions used to assess a transaction, which may result in us not realizing the expected financial or strategic benefits of any such transaction.
The occurrence of any of these risks could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition or cash flows, particularly in the case of a larger acquisition.
As a result of past acquisitions, including the Liquibox acquisition, we have recorded a significant amount of goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets and we may never realize the full carrying value of the related assets.
As a result of past acquisitions, we have recorded a significant amount of goodwill and other identifiable intangible assets, including customer relationships, trademarks and developed technologies.
We test goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite useful lives for possible impairment annually during the fourth quarter of each fiscal year or more frequently if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the asset might be impaired. Amortizable intangible assets are reviewed for possible impairment whenever there is evidence that events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. In the event that we determine that events or circumstances exist that indicate that the carrying value of goodwill or identifiable intangible assets may no longer be recoverable, we might have to recognize a non-cash impairment of goodwill or other identifiable intangible assets, which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
Political and economic instability and risk of government actions affecting our business and our customers or suppliers may adversely impact our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We are exposed to risks inherent in doing business in each of the countries or territories in which we or our customers or suppliers operate including: civil unrest, acts of terrorism, sabotage, epidemics, force majeure, war or other armed conflict and related government actions, including sanctions/embargoes, the deprivation of contract rights, the inability to obtain or retain licenses required by us to operate our plants or import or export our goods or raw materials, the expropriation or nationalization of our assets, and restrictions on travel, payments or the movement of funds.
The ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine has had and will likely continue to have a negative impact on our operations both within and outside the region. As a result of the conflict and the global response, including the current and potential future sanctions and export controls, our operations may continue to be adversely impacted by, among other things, disruptions to our supply chain and logistics, increases in costs particularly for our raw materials and energy-related costs, and an inability to repatriate income earned in Russia. For the year ended December 31, 2023, approximately 1% of our consolidated net sales were derived from products sold in Russia. While our industry is not currently the primary target of sanctions or export controls, the evolution and potential escalation of the conflict and actions taken by governments in response to such conflict, and the consequences, economic or otherwise, are unpredictable.
Geopolitical events, including the ongoing conflict between Russia and Ukraine, the existing or potential increased hostilities in the Middle East and the increasing tensions between China and Taiwan, may have a negative impact on the global industrial macro-economic environment and could materially adversely impact our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We may be unable to successfully execute on our growth initiatives, business strategies or operating plans.
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We may not be able to fully implement our business strategy to realize, in whole or in part within the expected time frame, the anticipated benefits of our growth and other initiatives. Our various business strategies and initiatives are subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control.
As our business environment changes, we have adjusted and may need to further adjust our business strategies or restructure our operations or particular businesses. Over time, we have implemented a number of restructuring programs, including various cost savings and reorganization initiatives. Currently the Company is in the midst of the CTO2Grow Program. We have made certain assumptions in estimating the anticipated savings we expect to achieve under such programs, which include the estimated savings from the elimination of certain headcount and the consolidation of facilities. We have also made assumptions on the expected cash spend to achieve the anticipated savings. These assumptions may turn out to be incorrect due to a variety of factors. In addition, our ability to realize and sustain the expected benefits from these programs is subject to significant business, economic and competitive uncertainties and contingencies, many of which are beyond our control. If we are unsuccessful in implementing these programs, do not achieve our expected results or are unable to maintain the savings on a long-term basis, our consolidated results of operations and cash flows could be adversely affected or our business operations could be disrupted.
If we are not able to protect our trade secrets or maintain our trademarks, patents and other intellectual property, we may not be able to prevent competitors from developing similar products or from marketing their products in a manner that capitalizes on our trademarks, and this loss of a competitive advantage may adversely impact our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Our ability to compete effectively with other companies depends, in part, on our ability to maintain the proprietary nature of our owned and licensed intellectual property. If we were unable to maintain the proprietary nature of our intellectual property and our significant current or future products, the resulting loss of associated competitive advantage could lead to decreased sales or increased operating costs, either of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
We rely on trade secrets to maintain our competitive position, including protecting the formulation and manufacturing techniques of many of our products. As such, we have not sought U.S. or international patent protection for some of our principal product formulas and manufacturing processes. Accordingly, we may not be able to prevent others from developing products that are similar to or competitive with our products.
We own a large number of patents and pending patent applications on our products, aspects thereof, methods of use and/or methods of manufacturing. There is a risk that our patents may not provide meaningful protection and patents may never be issued for our pending patent applications.
We own, or have licenses to use, all of the material trademark and trade name rights used in connection with the packaging, marketing and distribution of our major products both in the U.S. and in other countries/territories where our products are principally sold. Trademark and trade name protection is important to our business. Although most of our trademarks are registered in the U.S. and in the foreign countries/territories in which we operate, we may not be successful in asserting trademark or trade name protection. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries/territories may not protect our intellectual property rights to the same extent as the laws of the U.S. The costs required to protect our trademarks and trade names may be substantial.
We cannot be certain that we will be able to assert these intellectual property rights successfully in the future or that they will not be invalidated, circumvented or challenged. Other parties may infringe on our intellectual property rights and may thereby dilute the value of our intellectual property in the marketplace. Third parties, including competitors, may assert intellectual property infringement or invalidity claims against us that could be upheld. Intellectual property litigation, which could result in substantial cost to and diversion of effort by us, may be necessary to protect our trade secrets or proprietary technology or for us to defend against claimed infringement of the rights of others and to determine the scope and validity of others’ proprietary rights. We may not prevail in any such litigation, and if we are unsuccessful, we may not be able to obtain any necessary licenses on reasonable terms or at all.
Any failure by us to protect our trademarks and other intellectual property rights may have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Health epidemics, pandemics and other outbreaks could adversely impact the health and safety of our employees, our business continuity, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Health epidemics, pandemics and other outbreaks, such as the COVID-19 pandemic, have had and may continue to have adverse impact on the global economy and our business. We and some of our customers have experienced in the past, and could
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face in the future, facility shutdowns or reductions in operations due to pandemics or other health events and adverse impacts to staffing levels in our operations. These health events had and may result in future supply chain and operational disruptions such as the availability and transportation of raw materials or the ability for our packaging and equipment specialists to visit customer facilities. Unpredictable disruptions to the Company’s operations or our customers’ operations could reduce our future revenues and negatively impact the Company’s financial condition.
In addition, economic and market volatility due to pandemics and other outbreaks may negatively impact consumer buying habits, which could adversely affect the Company’s financial results.
The extent to which our operations may be impacted in the future by health epidemics, pandemics and other outbreaks, including the COVID-19 pandemic, will depend largely on continued developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be accurately predicted, including new information which may emerge concerning the severity of the outbreak, including new variants of the virus, and actions by government authorities to contain the outbreak or treat its impact, including the effectiveness and distribution of vaccines.
Operational Risks
Raw material pricing, including how our selling prices reflect the cost of raw materials, availability and allocation by suppliers as well as energy-related costs may negatively impact our results of operations, including our profit margins.
We use petrochemical-based raw materials to manufacture many of our products. The prices for these raw materials are cyclical and increases in market demand or fluctuations in the global trade for petrochemical-based raw materials and energy could increase our costs.
While historically we have been able to successfully manage the impact of higher raw material costs by increasing our selling prices, if we were unable to minimize the effects of increased raw material costs through sourcing, pricing or other actions, our business, consolidated financial condition or results of operations may be materially adversely affected. A portion of our sales prices, specifically within Food's North American and APAC business, is determined using formula based pricing which reflects changes in underlying raw material indices. On average, formula based pricing lags raw material cost movement by approximately six months. We may experience a benefit (when resin prices decrease) or detriment (when resin prices increase) to our cost of sales before those price changes are reflected in our selling prices. As such, trends in raw material pricing may have a negative impact on future profit margins. Our reliance on some sole-source suppliers, and/or the lack of availability of supplies, including equipment components, could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Natural disasters, such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake or other severe weather event, as well as political instability and terrorist activities, may negatively impact the production or delivery capabilities of refineries and natural gas and petrochemical suppliers and suppliers of other raw materials in the future. These factors could lead to increased prices for our raw materials, curtailment of supplies, allocation of raw materials, and other force majeure events of our suppliers and harm relations with our customers which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Demand for our products could be adversely affected by changes in consumer preferences or if we are not able to innovate and bring new products to market.
Our sales depend heavily on the volumes of sales by our customers in food processing and service industries, the industrial manufacturing and electronics sectors, and e-commerce. Consumer preferences for food and durable goods packaging can influence our sales. Consumer preferences for fresh and unpackaged foods and the global e-commerce and industrial market change over time. Changes in consumer behavior, including changes driven by cost, availability, durability, sustainability, innovation, or various health or environmental-related concerns and perceptions, could negatively impact demand for our products.
Innovation, particularly related to our sustainability offerings, is key to our strategy. Our performance and prospects for future growth could be adversely affected if new products do not meet sales or margin expectations and we are not able to meet our innovation goals. Our customers' preferences continue to trend towards sustainable packaging solutions. Our success is dependent on continued innovation in sustainability and our ability to bring new products to market in an efficient manner.
Our competitive advantage is due in part to our ability to develop and introduce new and sustainable products in a timely manner at favorable margins. The development and commercialization cycle of new products can be lengthy and involve high levels of investment. New products may not meet sales or margin expectations due to many factors, including our inability to
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(i) accurately predict demand, end-user preferences and evolving industry and regulatory standards; (ii) resolve technical and technological challenges in a timely and cost-effective manner; or (iii) achieve manufacturing efficiencies.
Unfavorable customer responses to price increases could have a material adverse impact on our sales and earnings.
From time to time, and especially in periods of rising raw material costs, we increase the prices of our products. Significant price increases could impact our earnings depending on, among other factors, the pricing by competitors of similar products and the response by customers to higher prices. Such price increases may result in lower sales volume and a subsequent decrease in gross margin and adversely impact our results of operations.
Cyber risk and the failure to maintain the integrity of our operational or security systems or infrastructure, or those of third parties with which we do business, could have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We, like other global companies, are subject to an increasing number of cybersecurity threats which pose a risk to the security of our systems and networks and the confidentiality, availability and integrity of our data. Disruptions or failures in the physical infrastructure or operating systems that support our businesses and customers, or cyberattacks or security breaches of our networks or systems, or networks or systems of our customers and key vendors, could result in the loss of customers and business opportunities, legal liability, regulatory fines, penalties or intervention, reputational damage, reimbursement or other compensatory costs, and additional compliance costs, any of which could materially adversely affect our business, consolidated financial condition and results of operations. In addition, geopolitical tensions and instability may heighten our risk of cybersecurity incidents. To mitigate these threats to our business, we maintain a cybersecurity program aligned with industry frameworks designed to protect, detect, and respond to internal and external threats. For additional discussion of our cybersecurity risk management, strategy, and governance, see Part I, Item 1C., "Cybersecurity," below. While we have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, occasional attacks attempting to breach the security of our network and systems, none have resulted in a breach with material impact or any penalties or settlement for the three years ended December 31, 2023.
We also maintain and have access to sensitive, confidential or personal data or information in certain of our businesses that is subject to privacy and security laws, regulations and customer controls. Despite our continued efforts to protect such sensitive, confidential or personal data or information, our facilities and systems and those of our customers and third-party service providers may be vulnerable to security breaches, theft, misplaced or lost data, programming and/or human errors that could lead to the compromising of sensitive, confidential or personal data or information, improper use of our systems, software solutions or networks, unauthorized access, use, disclosure, modification or destruction of information, defective products, production downtimes and operational disruptions, which in turn could adversely affect our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
The regulatory environment surrounding cybersecurity and data privacy is increasingly demanding, with new and changing regulations. We could be required to expend additional resources, which could be material, to comply with any such regulations, and failure to comply could subject us to significant penalties or claims.
If we are unable to successfully manage leadership transition, our consolidated financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected, or we may not be able to execute our strategies.
Leadership transitions can be inherently difficult to manage, and failure to timely or successfully implement transitions may cause disruption to our Company. The execution and success of our business plan and strategy depends largely on the efforts and abilities of our management team. Changes in our organization as a result of executive management transition may have a disruptive impact on our ability to implement our strategy and could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
If we are unable to retain key employees and other personnel, our consolidated financial condition or results of operations may be adversely affected or we may not be able to execute our strategies.
The execution and success of our strategy depends largely on the efforts and abilities of our management team and other key personnel. Their experience and industry contacts significantly benefit us, and we need their expertise to execute our business strategies. If any such employee were to cease working for us and we were unable to replace them, our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows may be materially adversely affected.
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Supply chain disruptions related to the transport of raw materials, components and/or finished goods may delay the timing of when we are able to manufacture our product or serve our customers, which could adversely affect our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We rely on third-party logistics suppliers for the distribution and transportation of raw materials, components, operating supplies and products. Delays, fluctuations in freight costs, limitations on shipping and receiving capacity, and other disruptions in the transportation and shipping infrastructure may adversely impact our ability to manufacture and distribute products. The Company may also incur higher tariffs and duties to obtain materials from suboptimized sourcing locations. Additionally, transportation costs may increase as freight carriers raise prices to address the overall market conditions. There is no guarantee that we will be able to recover any past or future increases in transportation costs. While we have a geographically diverse international presence and are situated in close proximity to many significant customers, future supply chain disruptions related to the transport of raw materials and/or finished goods could adversely affect our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
A major loss of or disruption in our manufacturing and distribution operations or our information systems and telecommunication resources could adversely affect our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
If we were to experience a natural disaster, such as a hurricane, tornado, earthquake or other severe weather event, a casualty loss from an event such as a fire or flood, at one of our larger strategic facilities, or experience adverse impacts, such as plant shutdowns or travel restrictions due to regional or global human health related illness or if such events were to affect a key supplier, our supply chain or our information systems and telecommunication resources, then there could be a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations. We are dependent on internal and third-party information technology networks and systems, including the Internet, to process, transmit and store electronic information. In particular, we depend on our information technology infrastructure for fulfilling and invoicing customer orders, applying cash receipts, and placing purchase orders with suppliers, making cash disbursements, and conducting marketing activities, data processing and electronic communications among business locations.
We also depend on telecommunication systems for communications between company personnel and our customers and suppliers. Future system disruptions, security breaches or shutdowns could significantly disrupt our operations or result in lost or misappropriated information and may have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Large-scale animal health issues as well as other health issues affecting the food industry and disruptive forces of nature, including those resulting from climate change, such as significant regional droughts, prolonged severe weather conditions, floods, and natural disasters, may lead to decreased revenues.
We manufacture and sell food packaging products, among other products. Various forces of nature affecting the food industry have in the past and may in the future have a negative effect on the sales of food packaging products. Outbreaks of animal diseases may lead governments to restrict exports and imports of potentially affected animals and food products, leading to decreased demand for our products and possibly also to the culling or slaughter of significant numbers of the animal population otherwise intended for food supply. Other disruptive forces of nature such as droughts, floods and other severe weather can lead to agricultural market disruptions resulting in reduced herd size or modifications to the traditional herd cycles which could affect supply or demand for our products. Also, consumers may change their eating habits as a result of perceived problems with certain types of food. These factors may lead to reduced sales of food packaging products, which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We could experience disruptions in operations and/or increased labor costs.
We depend on the skills, working relationships, and continued services of employees, including our direct manufacturing employees. The labor market in many geographic regions, including the U.S., is becoming increasingly competitive. Higher turnover may lead to reductions in operational efficiencies. Additionally, in Europe and Latin America, many of our employees are represented by either labor unions or workers' councils and are covered by collective bargaining agreements that are generally renewable on an annual basis. As is the case with any negotiation, we may not be able to negotiate acceptable new collective bargaining agreements, which could result in strikes or work stoppages by affected workers. Renewal of collective bargaining agreements could also result in higher wages or benefits paid to union members. A shortage in the labor pool and other general inflationary pressures or changes, the results of our labor negotiations and changes to applicable laws and regulations could increase labor costs, or cause a disruption in operations, which could materially adversely affect our business.
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Legal, Regulatory and Compliance Risks
Regulations on recycling or environmental sustainability could adversely impact our business.
A number of governmental authorities, both in the U.S. and abroad, have adopted or are considering legislation aimed at reducing the amount of plastic waste. Such legislation included banning or restricting the use of certain materials in packaging products (such as polyvinylidene chloride), mandating certain rates of recycling and/or the use of recycled materials, imposing deposits or taxes on plastic packaging materials, requiring retailers or manufacturers to take back packaging used for their products, and establishing other Extended Producer Responsibility requirements for plastic packaging manufacturers. Such legislation, as well as voluntary initiatives, aimed at reducing the level of plastic wastes could, among other things, reduce the demand for certain plastic packaging products, force the adoption of alternative materials, limit the availability of certain raw materials, and result in greater costs for manufacturers of plastic packaging products. If we are unable to successfully manage these risks, our business, financial condition and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Multiple U.S. states have passed laws regulating the use of PFAS in food packaging materials. In addition, the EU, Australia, and Canada have either passed laws or expressed intent to regulate PFAS in packaging materials. Currently, we are in compliance with U.S. regulations and have reformulated certain of our U.S. food packaging products to be in compliance with anticipated regulations. We are continuing the effort to extend those actions to product formulations in other regions to comply with future requirements. To the best of our knowledge, we are in compliance with all current global regulations regarding the use of PFAS. If the regulations extend to non-food products, there may be risks (such as additional costs) associated with the manufacture and use of those products.
As countries progress towards long-term environmental stewardship goals, we expect laws and tax policy to continue to advance in this regard. We have established processes and internal goals related to operating efficiency in matters such as greenhouse gas emissions, energy usage, and water consumption. There is no guarantee these internal goals will be as comprehensive as future legislation in the jurisdictions in which we operate.
We are the subject of various legal proceedings, and may be subject to future claims and litigation, that could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations or cash flows.
We are involved from time to time in various legal proceedings. Litigation, in general, and securities, derivative actions and class action litigation, in particular, can be expensive and disruptive. Some of these proceedings may involve parties seeking large and/or indeterminate amounts, including punitive or exemplary damages, and may remain unresolved for several years. Litigation and other adverse legal proceedings could have a material adverse effect our businesses, operating results and/or cash flows because of reputational harm to us caused by such proceedings, the cost of defending such proceedings, the cost of settlement or judgments against us or the changes in our operations that could result from such proceedings. Although we maintain legal liability insurance coverage, potential litigation claims could be excluded or exceed coverage limits under the terms of our insurance policies or could result in increased costs for such coverage.
Product liability claims or regulatory actions could adversely affect our financial results or harm our reputation or the value of our brands.
Claims for losses or injuries purportedly caused by some of our products arise in the ordinary course of our business. In addition to the risk of substantial monetary judgments, product liability claims or regulatory actions could result in negative publicity that could harm our reputation in the marketplace or adversely impact the value of our brands or our ability to sell our products in certain jurisdictions. We could also be required to recall possibly defective products, or voluntarily do so, which could result in adverse publicity and significant expenses. Although we maintain product liability insurance coverage, potential product liability claims could be excluded or exceed coverage limits under the terms of our insurance policies or could result in increased costs for such coverage.
Our operations are subject to a variety of environmental and other laws that expose us to regulatory scrutiny, potential financial liability and increased operating costs.
Our operations are subject to a number of federal, state, local and foreign environmental, health and safety laws and regulations that govern, among other things, the manufacture of our products, handling, transportation, storage and disposal of hazardous materials, and the discharge of pollutants into the air, soil and water along with similar legislation aimed at addressing climate change issues.
Many jurisdictions require us to have operating permits for our production and warehouse facilities and operations. Any failure to obtain, maintain or comply with the terms of these permits could result in fines or penalties, revocation or nonrenewal of our
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permits, or orders to cease certain operations, and may have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We generate, use and dispose of hazardous materials in our manufacturing processes. In the event our operations result in the release of hazardous materials into the environment, we may become responsible for the costs associated with the investigation and remediation of sites at which we have released pollutants, or sites where we have disposed or arranged for the disposal of hazardous wastes, even if we fully complied with applicable environmental laws at the time of disposal. We have been, and may continue to be, responsible for the cost of remediation at some locations.
We are also subject to various federal, state, local and foreign laws and regulations that regulate products manufactured and sold by us for controlling microbial growth on humans, animals and processed foods. In the U.S., these requirements are generally administered by the FDA. We maintain programs designed to comply with these laws and regulations and to monitor their evolution. To date, the cost of complying with product registration requirements and FDA compliance has not had a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We cannot predict with reasonable certainty the future cost to us of environmental compliance, product registration, or other regulatory requirements. Environmental laws and other regulatory requirements have become more stringent and complex over time. Our environmental costs and operating expenses will be subject to evolving regulatory requirements and will depend on the scope and timing of the effectiveness of requirements in various jurisdictions. As a result of such requirements, we may be subject to an increased regulatory burden. Increased compliance costs, increasing risks and penalties associated with violations, or our inability to market some of our products in certain jurisdictions may have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We are subject to taxation and tax audits or investigations in multiple jurisdictions. As a result, any adverse development in the tax laws of any of these jurisdictions or any disagreement by the tax authorities with our tax positions could have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
We are subject to taxation in, and to the tax laws and regulations of, multiple jurisdictions as a result of the international scope of our operations and our corporate and financing structure. Tax laws are dynamic and subject to change as new laws are passed and new interpretations of the law are issued or applied.
There are various jurisdictions in which we operate which are actively considering changes to existing tax laws, that, if enacted, could increase our tax obligations in countries where we do business. In particular, the OECD (the "Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development") has proposed a global minimum tax of 15% of reported profits (Pillar Two) that has been agreed upon in principle by over 140 countries. During 2023, many countries took steps to incorporate Pillar Two model rule concepts into their domestic laws. Although the model rules provide a framework for applying the minimum tax, countries may enact Pillar Two slightly differently than the model rules and on different timelines and may adjust domestic tax incentives in response to Pillar Two. Additional changes in tax laws, as a result of Pillar Two or otherwise, could increase our overall taxes and our business, consolidated financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected in a material way.
We are also subject to tax audits or investigations in various jurisdictions that can result in assessments against us and the tax authorities in any applicable jurisdiction, including the U.S., may disagree with the positions we have taken or intend to take regarding the tax treatment or characterization of any of our transactions. Successful challenge by the tax authorities of the tax treatment or characterization of any of our transactions, or developments in an audit, investigation, or other tax dispute can have a material effect on our operating results or cash flows in the period or periods in which that development occurs. We regularly assess the likelihood of an adverse outcome resulting from these proceedings to determine the adequacy of our tax accruals. Although we believe our tax estimates are reasonable, the final outcome of audits, investigations, and any other tax controversies could be materially different from our historical accruals.
Future changes in global trade policies and regulations, as well as overall uncertainty surrounding international trade relations, could have a material adverse effect our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Future changes in global trade policies and regulations, including tariffs on products we import and export, could have an adverse impact on our business. Additionally, future trade policies and regulations are due in part to international relations and other geopolitical factors outside of our control. In order to mitigate the impact of these trade-related increases on our costs of products sold, we may increase prices in certain markets and, over the longer term, make changes in our supply chain and, potentially, our global manufacturing strategy. Implementing price increases may cause our customers to find alternative sources for their products. We may be unable to successfully pass along these costs through price increases; adjust our supply chain without incurring significant costs; or locate alternative suppliers for raw materials or finished goods at acceptable costs
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or in a timely manner. Our inability to effectively manage the negative impacts of changing U.S. and foreign trade policies could materially adversely impact our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
Although the Settlement agreement (as defined below) has been implemented and we have been released from the various asbestos-related, fraudulent transfer, successor liability, and indemnification claims made against us arising from a 1998 transaction with Grace (as defined below), if the courts were to refuse to enforce the injunctions or releases contained in the Plan (as defined below) and the Settlement agreement with respect to any claims and if Grace were unwilling or unable to defend and indemnify us for such claims, then we could be required to pay substantial damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition and results of operations. We were also a defendant in a number of asbestos-related actions in Canada arising from Grace’s activities in Canada prior to the 1998 transaction.
On March 31, 1998, we completed a multi-step transaction (the “Cryovac transaction”) involving W.R. Grace & Co. (“Grace”) which brought the Cryovac packaging business and the former Sealed Air’s business under the common ownership of the Company. As part of that transaction, Grace and its subsidiaries retained all liabilities arising out of their operations before the Cryovac transaction (including asbestos-related liabilities), other than liabilities relating to Cryovac’s operations, and agreed to indemnify the Company with respect to such retained liabilities. Beginning in 2000, we were served with a number of lawsuits alleging that the Cryovac transaction was a fraudulent transfer or gave rise to successor liability or both, and that as a result we were responsible for alleged asbestos liabilities of Grace and its subsidiaries. On April 2, 2001, Grace and a number of its subsidiaries filed petitions for reorganization under Chapter 11 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code in the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the District of Delaware (the “Bankruptcy Court”). In connection with Grace’s Chapter 11 case, the Bankruptcy Court issued orders staying all asbestos actions against the Company (the “Preliminary Injunction”) but granted the official committees appointed to represent asbestos claimants in Grace’s Chapter 11 case (the “Committees”) permission to pursue fraudulent transfer, successor liability, and other claims against the Company and its subsidiary Cryovac, Inc. based upon the Cryovac transaction. In November 2002, we reached an agreement in principle with the Committees to resolve all current and future asbestos-related claims made against us and our affiliates, as well as indemnification claims by Fresenius Medical Care Holdings, Inc. and affiliated companies, in each case, in connection with the Cryovac transaction (as memorialized by the parties and approved by the Bankruptcy Court, the “Settlement agreement”). A definitive Settlement agreement was entered into as of November 10, 2003 consistent with the terms of the agreement in principle. On June 27, 2005, the Bankruptcy Court approved the Settlement agreement and the Settlement agreement was subsequently incorporated into the plan of reorganization for Grace filed in September 2008 (as filed and amended from time to time, the "Plan"). Subsequently, the Bankruptcy Court (in January and February 2011) and the United States District Court for the District of Delaware (in January and June 2012) entered orders confirming Grace’s plan of reorganization in its entirety.
On February 3, 2014 (the “Effective Date”), in accordance with the Plan, Grace emerged from bankruptcy. In accordance with the Plan and the Settlement agreement, on the Effective Date, Cryovac, Inc. made aggregate cash payments in the amount of $929.7 million to the WRG Asbestos PI Trust (the “PI Trust”) and the WRG Asbestos PD Trust (the “PD Trust”) and transferred 18 million shares of Sealed Air common stock to the PI Trust. Among other things, the Plan incorporated and implemented the Settlement agreement and provided for the establishment of two asbestos trusts under Section 524(g) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code to which present and future asbestos-related personal injury and property damage claims are channeled. The Plan also provided injunctions and releases with respect to asbestos claims and certain other claims for our benefit. In addition, under the Plan and the Settlement agreement, Grace is required to indemnify us with respect to asbestos and certain other liabilities. Notwithstanding the foregoing, and although we believe the possibility to be remote, if any courts were to refuse to enforce the injunctions or releases contained in the Plan and the Settlement agreement with respect to any claims, and if, in addition, Grace were unwilling or unable to defend and indemnify us for such claims, then we could be required to pay substantial damages, which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, profitability or cash flows.
Financial Risks
Fluctuations between foreign currencies and the U.S. dollar could materially impact our consolidated financial condition or results of operations.
Approximately 47% of our net sales in 2023 were generated outside the U.S. We translate sales and other results denominated in foreign currency into U.S. dollars for our Consolidated Financial Statements. As a result, the Company is exposed to currency fluctuations both in receiving cash from its international operations and in translating its financial results into U.S. dollars. During periods of a strengthening U.S. dollar, our reported international sales and net earnings could be reduced because foreign currencies may translate into fewer U.S. dollars. Foreign exchange rates can also impact the competitiveness of products produced in certain jurisdictions and exported for sale into other jurisdictions. These changes may impact the value
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received for the sale of our goods versus those of our competitors. The Company cannot predict the effects of exchange rate fluctuations on its future operating results. As exchange rates vary, the Company's results of operations and profitability may be adversely impacted. While we use financial instruments to hedge certain foreign currency exposures, this does not insulate us completely from foreign currency effects and exposes us to counterparty credit risk for non-performance. See Note 15, “Derivatives and Hedging Activities,” for additional information. Such hedging activities may be ineffective or may not offset more than a portion of the adverse financial effect resulting from foreign currency variations. The gains or losses associated with hedging activities may negatively impact the Company's results of operations.
In all jurisdictions in which we operate, we are also subject to laws and regulations that govern foreign investment, foreign trade and currency exchange transactions. These laws and regulations may limit our ability to repatriate cash as dividends or otherwise to the U.S. and may limit our ability to convert foreign currency cash flows into U.S. dollars.
We have recognized foreign exchange losses related to the currency devaluations in Argentina and its designation as a highly inflationary economy under U.S. GAAP. See Note 2, “Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recently Issued Accounting Standards,” for additional information.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on time or refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business, legislative, regulatory and other factors beyond our control. We may be unable to maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness.
If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and could be forced to reduce or delay investments and capital expenditures or to dispose of material assets or operations, seek additional debt or equity capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. We may not be able to affect any such alternative measures on commercially reasonable terms or at all and, even if successful, those alternative actions may not allow us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. The credit agreement governing our senior secured credit facilities, the indentures that govern our senior notes and the agreements covering our accounts receivable securitization programs restrict our ability to dispose of assets and use the proceeds from those dispositions and may also restrict our ability to raise debt or equity capital to be used to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain proceeds in an amount sufficient to meet any debt service obligations then due.
In addition, we conduct a substantial portion of our operations through our subsidiaries, certain of which are not guarantors of our indebtedness. Accordingly, repayment of our indebtedness is dependent on the generation of cash flow by our subsidiaries and their ability to make such cash available to us, by dividend, debt repayment or otherwise. Unless they are guarantors of our indebtedness, our subsidiaries do not have any obligation to pay amounts due on indebtedness or to make funds available for that purpose. Our subsidiaries may not be able to, or may not be permitted to, make distributions to enable us to make payments in respect of our indebtedness. Each subsidiary is a distinct legal entity, and, under certain circumstances, legal and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from our subsidiaries. The indentures governing certain of our senior notes and the credit agreement governing the senior secured credit facilities limit the ability of certain of our subsidiaries to incur consensual restrictions on their ability to pay dividends or make other intercompany payments to us. These limitations are subject to qualifications and exceptions. In the event that we do not receive distributions from our subsidiaries, we may be unable to make required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness.
Our inability to generate sufficient cash flows to satisfy our debt obligations, or to refinance our indebtedness on commercially reasonable terms or at all, would materially and adversely affect our consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.
If we cannot make scheduled payments on our debt, we will be in default, our note holders and lenders could accelerate the repayment of our borrowings, the lenders could terminate their commitments to loan money and/or foreclose against the assets securing the borrowings, and we could be forced into bankruptcy or liquidation.
The terms of our senior secured credit facilities, our accounts receivable securitization programs, our supply chain financing programs, and our senior notes indentures may restrict our current and future operations, particularly our ability to respond to changes in market conditions or to take certain actions.
Our senior secured credit facilities, our accounts receivable securitization programs and our senior notes indentures contain a number of restrictive covenants that impose significant operating and financial restrictions on us and may limit our ability to engage in acts that may be in our long-term best interest, including restrictions on our ability to:
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incur additional indebtedness;
pay dividends or make other distributions or repurchase or redeem capital stock;
prepay, redeem or repurchase certain debt;
make loans and investments;
sell assets;
incur liens;
enter into transactions with affiliates;
alter the businesses we conduct;
enter into agreements restricting our subsidiaries’ ability to pay dividends; and
consolidate, merge or sell all or substantially all of our assets.
In addition, the restrictive covenants in our senior credit facilities require us to maintain a specified net leverage ratio. Our ability to meet this financial ratio can be affected by events beyond our control.
A breach of the covenants under our senior notes indentures or under our senior secured credit facilities could result in an event of default under the applicable indebtedness. Such a default may allow the creditors to accelerate the related debt and may result in the acceleration of any other debt to which a cross-acceleration or cross-default provision applies. In addition, an event of default under our senior secured credit facilities would permit the lenders under our senior secured credit facilities to terminate all commitments to extend further credit under those facilities. Furthermore, if we were unable to repay the amounts due and payable under our senior secured credit facilities or our senior secured notes, those lenders or note holders could proceed against the collateral granted to them to secure that indebtedness. In the event our lenders or note holders accelerate the repayment of our borrowings, we and our subsidiaries may not have sufficient assets to repay that indebtedness. As a result of these restrictions, we may be:
limited in how we conduct our business;
unable to respond to changing market conditions;
unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to operate during general economic or business downturns or to repay other indebtedness when it becomes due; or
unable to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities.
In addition, amounts available under our accounts receivable securitization programs and/or utilization of our supply chain financing programs can be impacted by a number of factors, including but not limited to our credit ratings, accounts receivable or payable balances, the creditworthiness of us or our customers, our receivables collection experience and/or our trade payable payment history. Additionally, if our credit ratings were to be downgraded, particularly our corporate rating, there could be a negative impact on our ability to access capital markets and borrowing costs could increase.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our debt service obligations to increase significantly.
Borrowings under our senior secured credit facilities are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness will increase even though the amount borrowed will remain the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, will correspondingly decrease. As of December 31, 2023, we had $1,058 million of long-term borrowings under our senior secured credit facilities at variable interest rates. A 1/8% increase or decrease in the assumed interest rates on the senior secured credit facilities would result in a $1.3 million increase or decrease in annual interest expense. In the future, we may enter into interest rate swaps that involve the exchange of floating for fixed rate interest payments in order to reduce interest rate volatility. However, we may not maintain interest rate swaps with respect to all of our variable rate indebtedness, and any swaps we enter into may not fully mitigate our interest rate risk.
The impact of our tax expense on operating results or cash flows can change materially as a result of changes in our geographic mix of U.S. and foreign earnings and other factors, including changes in tax laws and changes made by regulatory authorities.
Our tax expense and liabilities are affected by a number of factors, such as changes in our business operations, acquisitions, investments, entry into new businesses and geographies, intercompany transactions, the relative amount of our foreign earnings, losses incurred in jurisdictions for which we are not able to realize related tax benefits, the applicability of special or extraterritorial tax regimes, changes in foreign currency exchange rates, the level of interest expense we incur, changes in our
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stock price, changes to our forecasts of income and loss and the mix of jurisdictions to which they relate, and changes in our tax assets and liabilities and their valuation. In the ordinary course of our business, there are many transactions and calculations for which the ultimate tax determination is uncertain. Significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating our tax expense, assets, and liabilities.
The full realization of our deferred tax assets may be affected by a number of factors, including future earnings and the feasibility of on-going planning strategies.
We have deferred tax assets including state and foreign net operating loss carryforwards, accruals not yet deductible for tax purposes, employee benefit items and other items. We have established valuation allowances to reduce the deferred tax assets to an amount that is more likely than not to be realized. Our ability to utilize the deferred tax assets depends in part upon our ability to generate future taxable income within each respective jurisdiction during the periods in which these temporary differences reverse or our ability to carryback any losses created by the deduction of these temporary differences. We expect to realize the assets over an extended period. If we are unable to generate sufficient future taxable income in the U.S. and/or certain foreign jurisdictions, or if there is a significant change in the time period within which the underlying temporary differences become taxable or deductible, we could be required to increase our valuation allowances against our deferred tax assets. Our effective tax rate would increase if we were required to increase our valuation allowances against our deferred tax assets.
Disruption and volatility of the financial and credit markets could affect our external liquidity sources.
Our principal sources of liquidity are accumulated cash and cash equivalents, short-term investments, cash flow from operations and amounts available under our lines of credit, including our senior secured credit facilities, and our accounts receivable securitization programs. We may be unable to refinance any of our indebtedness, including our senior notes, our accounts receivable securitization programs and our senior secured credit facilities, on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
Additionally, conditions in financial markets could affect financial institutions with which we have relationships and could result in adverse effects on our ability to utilize fully our committed borrowing facilities. For example, a lender under the senior secured credit facilities may be unwilling or unable to fund a borrowing request, and we may not be able to replace such lender.
Our insurance policies may not cover all operating risks and a casualty loss beyond the limits of our coverage could materially and adversely impact our business.
Our business is subject to operating hazards and risks relating to handling, storing, transporting and use of the products we sell. We maintain insurance policies in amounts and with coverage and deductibles that we believe are reasonable and prudent. Nevertheless, our insurance coverage may not be adequate to protect us from all liabilities and expenses that may arise from claims for personal injury or death or property damage arising in the ordinary course of business, and our current levels of insurance may not be maintained or available in the future at economical prices. If a significant liability claim is brought against us that is not adequately covered by insurance, we may have to pay the claim with our own funds, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows.

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments
None.
Item 1C. Cybersecurity
Cybersecurity Risk Management and Strategy
Overview of Cybersecurity Risk Management
The Company maintains a cybersecurity program that is designed to identify, prevent, detect, respond to, and recover from cybersecurity threats, and protect the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our information technology, including the information residing on such systems. The Company has a dedicated Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) with overall responsibility for developing and implementing the global cyber strategy, risk management, and operational initiatives. The Company leverages recognized cybersecurity frameworks to organize, improve, and assess its cybersecurity program and to manage and reduce cybersecurity risk. The global information security team, under the direction of the CISO, develops,
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implements, and manages cybersecurity-related internal controls and risk processes for the Company, with internal controls consisting of a mix of administrative, technical, and physical controls.
We deploy, configure, and maintain numerous technologies to enforce security policies, detect and protect against cybersecurity threats, and help safeguard the Company’s information systems and assets. We operate a Security Operation Center (SOC) to monitor cybersecurity threats, coordinate incident response resources, and reduce response times. Our internal SOC team is augmented by a third-party managed security services provider. The Company maintains a cybersecurity incident response plan that provides a structured approach for the Company’s response to cybersecurity incidents. Under the plan, cybersecurity incidents are escalated based on a defined incident severity scale, including to the Board of Directors as appropriate. To improve preparedness for a cybersecurity incident, we conduct tabletop exercises multiple times throughout the year. These exercises are conducted by internal team members and in some instances with assistance from third-party experts. The Company’s cybersecurity program also includes regular cybersecurity trainings for staff. We actively evaluate the training effectiveness and adjust the trainings based on the evaluations.
The Company’s cybersecurity program is periodically reviewed and adjusted by the CISO's office so that it can remain flexible and responsive as circumstances evolve, new cybersecurity threats emerge, and regulations change.
Engagement of Third Parties
We engage third-party cybersecurity consultants and experts to supplement staffing of our SOC as well as to assess, validate, and enhance our security practices, including conducting cybersecurity maturity assessments, vulnerability assessments, and penetration tests. As part of the incident response process described above, we engage third-party experts as needed to support the incident response team, such as external legal advisors, cybersecurity forensic firms, and other specialists.
Third Party Service Provider Risk Management
Vendor risk assessment is part of the Company’s cybersecurity program, which facilitates management of third-party service providers’ IT-related risks. Third-party service providers that have access to the Company’s network, data and information are subject to a cybersecurity due diligence process and the corresponding security control requirements based on the nature of the engagement. The vendor risk assessment process is reviewed at least annually.
Risks from Material Cybersecurity Threats
Cybersecurity risk and the failure to maintain the integrity of our operational or security systems or infrastructure, or those of third parties with which we do business, could have a material adverse effect on our business, consolidated financial condition, results of operations, or cash flows. Refer to Part I, Item 1A, "Risk Factors," for more information on SEE’s risks relating to our technologies, systems, and networks.
Governance of Cybersecurity Risk Management
The Board of Directors has oversight responsibility for our risk management programs, including cybersecurity risk management. The Board of Directors has delegated the specific responsibility of cybersecurity risk oversight to the Audit Committee, although the Board remains actively involved in overseeing cybersecurity risk management, both through presentations given by management during Board meetings, as well as through regular reports from the Audit Committee on its cybersecurity risk oversight activities.
Our Chief Information Officer (CIO) and CISO provide cybersecurity updates to the Audit Committee three times each year and the Board at least annually. These updates cover various topics, including information relating to cybersecurity strategy, program management, and performance trends. In addition to this regular reporting, significant cybersecurity risks or threats may also be escalated on as needed basis to the Audit Committee and the Board of Directors.
The Company’s management team is responsible for the day-to-day assessment and management of cybersecurity risks. As mentioned above, a dedicated CISO leads the information security team and is responsible for the Company’s cybersecurity risk management and strategy. The CISO has an MBA from Northwestern University's Kellogg School of Business, a master's degree in electrical and computer engineering from the University of Alberta and more than 20 years of experience in information security and risk management with companies in various sectors. The CISO reports to the CIO, who is responsible for global IT strategy and IT operations across the enterprise. The CIO has a degree in computer science and mathematics from Wofford College and has over 30 years of experience in the IT industry, spanning various roles and sectors.
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As part of its overall Enterprise Risk Management (ERM) program, the Company identifies and assesses cybersecurity risks on an annual basis. The ERM program includes identification, assessment and management of risks, including cybersecurity risks. Business process owners incorporate risk management philosophy, exposures, mitigating activities, and key indicators to develop strategies and actions. The ERM Steering Committee, comprised of senior level executives, is responsible for assessing cybersecurity risks, providing direction and oversight for risk mitigation actions, and assisting the Board of Directors in overseeing the Company’s cybersecurity risks.
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Item 2. Properties
We manufacture products in 105 facilities, with 15 of those facilities serving both of our reportable segments. The following table shows our manufacturing facilities by geographic region and our business segment reporting structure:
Properties by Geographic RegionNumber of Manufacturing FacilitiesFood Manufacturing FacilitiesProtective Manufacturing Facilities
Americas46 18 32 
Europe, Middle East and Africa ("EMEA")28 15 19 
Asia, Australia and New Zealand ("APAC")31 11 25 
Total105 44 76 
Other Property Information
We own the large majority of our manufacturing facilities. Some of these facilities are subject to secured or other financing arrangements. We lease the balance of our manufacturing facilities, which are generally smaller sites. Our manufacturing facilities are usually located in general purpose buildings that house our specialized machinery for the manufacture of one or more products. Because of the relatively low density of our air cellular, polyethylene foam and protective mailer products, we realize significant freight savings by locating our manufacturing facilities for these products near our customers and distributors.
We also occupy facilities containing sales, distribution, technical, warehouse or administrative functions at a number of locations in the U.S. and in many foreign countries/territories. Some of these facilities are located on the manufacturing sites that we own and some of these are leased. Stand-alone facilities of these types are generally leased. Our global headquarters is located in an owned property in Charlotte, North Carolina. For a list of those countries and territories outside of the U.S. where we have operations, see Global Scale and Market Access within “Competitive Strengths” in Part I, Item 1, "Business."
We believe that our manufacturing, warehouse, office and other facilities are well maintained, suitable for their purposes and adequate for our needs.
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Item 3. Legal Proceedings
The information set forth in Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” of Part II, Item 8, “Financial Statements and Supplemental Data,” under the captions “Settlement Agreement Tax Deduction,” “Securities Class Action” and “Environmental Matters” is incorporated herein by reference.
The Company has received litigation demand letters from purported stockholders of the Company. In the letters, the stockholders alleged, among other things, substantially the same wrongdoing as that alleged in the securities class action complaint described in Note 20, “Commitments and Contingencies,” as well as allegations of breach of fiduciary duty, unjust enrichment and waste of corporate assets for failure to correct the alleged false and misleading statements, insider sales of the company’s stock, compensation benefiting from the alleged artificially inflated stock value, company repurchases of shares based on the alleged inflated stock value, and costs in connection with lawsuits and internal investigations. The letters either demand that the Company file suit against certain current and former directors and officers or indicate that the Company file suit against Ernst & Young, several of its current or former partners and the Company’s former CFO, William Stiehl, as applicable. The Board of Directors considered and addressed the litigation demands, and to the best of our knowledge, the matters have been resolved as of January 2024.
We are also involved in various other legal actions incidental to our business. To the best of our knowledge, after consulting with counsel, the disposition of these other legal proceedings and matters will not have a material effect on our consolidated financial condition or results of operations including potential impact to cash flows.
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Item 4. Mine Safety Disclosures
Not applicable.

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Information About Our Executive Officers
The information appearing in the table below sets forth the current position or positions held by each of our executive officers, the officer’s age as of January 31, 2024, the year in which the officer was first elected to the position currently held with us and the year in which such person was first elected an officer. All of our officers serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors.
There are no family relationships among any of our executive officers or directors.
Name and Current PositionAge as of January 31, 2024First Elected to Current PositionFirst Elected an Executive Officer
Emile Z. Chammas
   Interim Co-President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, and
      Chief Operating Officer
55 20232010
Dustin J. Semach
   Interim Co-President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, and
      Chief Financial Officer
42 20232023
Tobias Grasso, Jr.
   President, Americas
60 20212022
Gerd Wichmann
   President, Europe, Middle East and Africa
55 20202022
Alessandra Faccin Assis
   President, Asia Pacific
45 20222022
Angel S. Willis
   Vice President, General Counsel & Secretary
53 20192020
Jannick C. Thomsen
   Vice President, Chief People and Digital Officer
41 20222022
Shuxian (Susan) Yang
   Vice President, Treasurer, Investor Relations, and
      Strategic Growth Finance
52 20222022
Veronika Johnson
   Chief Accounting Officer and Controller
41 20232023
Mr. Chammas was named Interim Co-President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, and Chief Operating Officer in October 2023. Mr. Chammas was previously appointed as Senior Vice President and Chief Operating Officer in 2022. He joined the Company in 2010 and had served as Senior Vice President, Chief Transformation and Manufacturing/Supply Chain Officer since 2019. Mr. Chammas leads the global procurement and manufacturing organizations with a focus on SEE Operational Excellence across the Company. He also served as Chief Transformation Officer, reflecting his company-wide leadership of the Reinvent SEE business transformation. From 2010 to 2019, Mr. Chammas served as Senior Vice President and Chief Supply Chain Officer. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Chammas was Vice President, Worldwide Supply Chain, for the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company, a confectionery company, from 2008 through 2010, and served in management positions of increasing responsibility in supply chain, operations and procurement with the Wm. Wrigley Jr. Company from 2002 through 2008.
Mr. Semach was named Interim Co-President and Co-Chief Executive Officer, and Chief Financial Officer in October 2023. Mr. Semach initially joined the Company as Chief Financial Officer-Designate effective April 17, 2023, and became Chief Financial Officer in May 2023. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Semach served as Chief Financial Officer of TTEC Holdings, Inc., a global customer experience technology and services provider (“TTEC”), from November 2021 to April 2023, after joining TTEC, in December 2020 as part of its planned Chief Financial Officer succession. Prior to joining TTEC, Mr. Semach served as Chief Financial Officer at Rackspace Technology, Inc., a global cloud services provider, from July 2019 to November 2020, and prior to that he held various key leadership roles at DXC Technology Company, an information technology services company, from January 2013 to July 2019.
Mr. Grasso was named President of the Americas region of the Company in 2021. He was appointed as an executive officer of the Company in 2022. In his current role, he is responsible for business and commercial strategy implementation and the Americas results for our Food and Protective segments. Mr. Grasso began his career at Sealed Air in 2015 and managed the Company’s food packaging business as Vice President of Latin America and then President of North America. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Grasso served as President of Mosaic Brazil for The Mosaic Company from 2005 to 2015, a leading integrated producer and marketer of concentrated phosphate and potash. Mr. Grasso started his career at Cargill, one of the top producers and distributors of agricultural products and spent 18 years at the company ultimately serving in several management and leadership positions in the food, agriculture and beverage businesses.
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Mr. Wichmann was named President of the Europe, Middle East and Africa ("EMEA") region of the Company in 2020. He was appointed as an executive officer of the Company in 2022. In his current role, he is responsible for business and commercial strategy implementation and the EMEA results for our Food and Protective segments. Mr. Wichmann joined the Company in 1994, starting his career with Cryovac as an application engineer. After that, he held multiple positions of increasing responsibility in research and development, portfolio, EMEA marketing, as well as a general management role for the food equipment business globally. Most recently, he served as Vice President & General Manager of Protective Packaging - EMEA prior to his current role.
Ms. Faccin was named President of the Asia Pacific ("APAC") region of the Company in 2022. She was appointed as an executive officer of the Company in 2022. In her current role, she is responsible for business and commercial strategy implementation and the APAC results for our Food and Protective segments. Ms. Faccin joined the Company in 2013 as Vice President, Financial Planning & Analysis, and has held various leadership positions throughout her career with the Company. She was Vice President and Treasurer from 2015 to 2017 and again most recently in 2021, where she was responsible for all treasury functions including access to capital markets and capital allocation strategy. From 2018 to 2020, she led the Protective Packaging business in North America as Vice President and General Manager, where she headed the Company’s integration of the acquisition of Automated Packaging Systems. Prior to joining the Company, she held various finance roles at The Dow Chemical Company from 2009 to 2012 and at Rohm and Haas from 1999 to 2009.
Ms. Willis joined the Company in 2019 as Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary. She was appointed as an executive officer of the Company in 2020. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Willis served as Vice President & Deputy General Counsel at Ingersoll Rand. In that role, she led the legal aspects of strategic transactions such as mergers and acquisitions and all legal affairs for Europe, Middle East, India and Africa. Overall, Ms. Willis held numerous legal roles with broad scope supporting commercial business units, functions and regions at Ingersoll Rand from 2005 through 2018. Prior to joining Ingersoll Rand, Ms. Willis was Corporate Counsel at Cummins, Inc. and Associate at Ice Miller, LLP.
Mr. Thomsen joined the Company in 2022 as Vice President, Chief People and Digital Officer. He was appointed as an executive officer of the Company in 2022. In his current role, he is responsible for multiple global functions, including Human Resources, Business Process Improvement and Digital. Prior to joining the Company, Mr. Thomsen served as a Partner at McKinsey & Company, where he worked from 2006 to 2022, where he focused on driving growth and digital transformation for private equity-owned and publicly listed companies in North America, Europe and Asia. Before this, he worked in the finance and investment sector where he spent time at an investment bank in Scandinavia.
Ms. Yang was named Vice President, Treasurer, Investor Relations and Strategic Growth Finance in 2022. She was appointed as an executive officer of the Company in 2022. In her current role, she is responsible for all treasury functions, investor relations and enterprise risk management. In addition, she provides financial leadership for SEE's equipment and automation business. She joined the Company in 2014 as Americas Finance Director for the Protective business, and has held various leadership positions throughout her career with the Company including Global Finance Director for Food, Vice President of the Global Commercial Finance team and Vice President of Corporate Financial Planning and Analysis. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Yang held various finance roles at the Dow Chemical Company from 2009 to 2014 and Rohm & Haas Company from 2001 to 2009.
Ms. Johnson was appointed as Chief Accounting Officer and Controller in 2023. She was appointed as an executive officer of the Company in 2023. Since 2018, she served as the Company’s Vice President, Global Business Services, responsible for record-to-report, order-to-cash and procure-to-pay transaction processing across the globe. Prior to that, she served in various accounting leadership positions since joining the Company in 2015. Prior to joining the Company, Ms. Johnson spent over eight years in public accounting in roles of increasing responsibility. Ms. Johnson is a Certified Public Accountant.
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PART II
Item 5.  Market for Registrant's Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
Market Information and Holders
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange with the trading symbol SEE. As of February 15, 2024, there were approximately 2,667 holders of record of our common stock.
Common Stock Performance Comparisons
The following graph shows, for the five years ended December 31, 2023, the cumulative total return on an investment of $100 assumed to have been made on December 31, 2018 in our common stock. The graph compares this return (“SEE”) with that of comparable investments assumed to have been made on the same date in: (a) the Standard & Poor’s 500 Stock Index (“Composite S&P 500”) and (b) a market capitalization-weighted self-constructed peer group (“Peer Group”).
The Peer Group includes Sealed Air and the following companies: AptarGroup, Inc.; Ashland Global Holdings Inc.; Avery Dennison Corporation; Avient Corporation; Axalta Coating Systems Ltd.; Ball Corporation; Berry Global Group, Inc.; Celanese Corporation; Crown Holdings, Inc.; Dover Corporation; Fortive Corporation; Graphic Packaging Holding Company; Packaging Corporation of America; Silgan Holdings Inc.; and Sonoco Products Company. The Peer Group is consistent with the peer companies used by the P&C Committee in 2023 in connection with certain aspects of our executive compensation programs. The P&C Committee selected Peer Group companies primarily in the materials sector that are comparable to Sealed Air based on sales, number of employees, and market capitalization.
Total return for each assumed investment assumes the reinvestment of all dividends on December 31 of the year in which the dividends were paid.
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1972
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
Not applicable.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
The table below sets forth the total number of shares of our common stock, par value $0.10 per share, that we repurchased in each month of the quarter ended December 31, 2023, the average price paid per share and the maximum number of shares that may yet be purchased under our publicly announced plans or programs.
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Period
Total Number of Shares Purchased(1)
Average Price Paid Per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Announced Plans or ProgramsMaximum Approximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
 (a)(b)(c)(d)
Balance as of September 30, 2023   $536,509,713 
October 1, 2023 through October 31, 2023— $— — 536,509,713 
November 1, 2023 through November 30, 2023— $— — 536,509,713 
December 1, 2023 through December 31, 2023— $— — 536,509,713 
Total  $536,509,713 
(1)On August 2, 2021, the Board of Directors approved a new share repurchase program of $1.0 billion. This program has no expiration and replaced the previous authorization. It does not obligate us to repurchase any specified amount of shares and remains subject to the discretion of the Board of Directors. As of December 31, 2023, there was $537 million remaining under the currently authorized repurchase program. From time to time we acquire shares by means of open-market transactions, including through plans complying with Rule 10b5-1 under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and privately negotiated transactions, including accelerated share repurchase programs, or other methods, pursuant to our publicly announced program described above, subject to market or other conditions, covenants in our senior secured credit facility and applicable regulatory requirements. In addition, we have historically withheld shares from awards under our 2014 Omnibus Incentive Plan pursuant to the provision thereof that permits tax withholding obligations or other legally required charges to be satisfied by having us withhold shares from an award under that plan. During the three months ended December 31, 2023, no shares were withheld pursuant to this provision.
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Item 6. [Reserved]
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Item 7.Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results
of Operations
The information in this MD&A should be read together with our Consolidated Financial Statements and related notes set forth in Part II, Item 8, as well as the discussion included in Part I, Item 1A, “Risk Factors,” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. All amounts and percentages are approximate due to rounding and all dollars are in millions, except per share amounts.
Business Overview and Reportable Segments
Sealed Air Corporation (“SEE”, “Sealed Air”, or the “Company”, also referred to as “we”, “us”, or “our”) is a leading global provider of packaging solutions that integrate sustainable, high-performance materials, automation, equipment and services. SEE designs, manufactures and delivers packaging solutions that preserve food, protect goods and automate packaging processes. We deliver our packaging solutions to an array of end markets including fresh proteins, foods, fluids and liquids, medical and life science, e-commerce retail, logistics and omnichannel fulfillment operations, and industrials. In February 2023, we acquired Liquibox and expanded our product offerings to liquid packaging and dispensing solutions for food, beverage, consumer goods and industrial end markets. Our portfolio of solutions includes leading brands such as CRYOVAC® brand food packaging, LIQUIBOX® brand liquids systems, SEALED AIR® brand protective packaging, AUTOBAG® brand automated packaging systems, and BUBBLE WRAP® brand packaging.
The Company’s Food and Protective segments are considered reportable segments under FASB ASC Topic 280. Our reportable segments are aligned with similar groups of products and customers. Corporate includes certain costs that are not allocated to the reportable segments. See Note 6, “Segments,” for additional information.
We employ sales, marketing and customer service personnel throughout the world who sell and market our products and services. Food solutions are largely sold directly to end customers, while Protective solutions are sold through a strategic network of distributors as well as directly to end customers. We generally do not impose annual minimum purchase volume requirements on our distributors. Product returns from our distributors in 2023 were not material. In 2023, 2022 or 2021, no customer or affiliated group of customers accounted for 10% or more of our consolidated net sales.
On a consolidated basis, there normally is minimal seasonality in the business, with net sales historically being slightly lower in the first quarter and slightly higher towards the end of the third quarter through the fourth quarter. Our consolidated results of operations typically trend directionally the same as our net sales seasonality. In 2023, we experienced slightly higher net sales in the second half of the year as compared to the first half which was partially due to the impact of foreign currency translation and the timing of the Liquibox acquisition. Approximately 45% of Food's sales are subject to formula based pricing, predominantly within North America and APAC, which lags raw material cost movement by approximately six months, on average.
Cash flow from operations tends to be lower in the first quarter and higher in the fourth quarter, reflecting seasonality of sales and working capital changes, including the timing of certain annual incentive compensation payments. During 2023, the Company generated $523 million in cash flow from operations in the second half of the year, compared to a use of $7 million in the first half of 2023. The first half of 2023 was impacted by a $175 million tax deposit that was made in April 2023 to the IRS related to the resolution of prior year tax matters.
The timing and seasonality of our results of operations may be difficult to predict if significant one-time transactions, events or non-recurring charges were to impact our business. Additionally, changes in end-consumer behavior have in the past impacted the timing and seasonality of results of operations.
Competition for our packaging products is based primarily on packaging performance characteristics, automation, sustainability-related characteristics of the materials, service, and price. Since competition is also based upon innovations in packaging technology, we maintain ongoing research and development programs to enable us to maintain technological leadership. Competition is both global and regional in scope and includes numerous smaller, local competitors with limited product portfolios and geographic reach.
Our net sales are sensitive to developments in our customers’ business or market conditions, changes in the global economy, and the effects of foreign currency translation. Our costs can vary materially due to changes in input costs, including petrochemical-related costs (primarily resin costs), which are not within our control. Consequently, our management focuses on reducing those costs that we can control and using petrochemical-based and other raw materials efficiently. Our global presence helps mitigate the impact of localized changes in business conditions.
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Our balanced capital allocation strategy is designed to maximize value for our shareholders with the goal to deliver above-market profitable organic growth, attractive returns on invested capital and return capital to shareholders in the form of dividends. We enable our growth strategy by investing, scaling, and shaping our portfolio of solutions through capital expenditures, research and development spend and acquisitions. Following our acquisition of Liquibox, we are focused on strengthening our balance sheet through the repayment of debt.
Each issue of our outstanding senior notes imposes limitations on our operations and those of specified subsidiaries. Our senior secured credit facility contains customary affirmative and negative covenants for credit facilities of this type, including limitations on our indebtedness, liens, investments, restricted payments, mergers and acquisitions, dispositions of assets, transactions with affiliates, amendment of documents and sale leasebacks, and a covenant specifying a maximum leverage ratio of debt to EBITDA. We expect continued compliance with our debt covenants including the covenant leverage ratio over the next 12 months. See Note 14, “Debt and Credit Facilities” for further details.
Non-U.S. GAAP Information
We present financial information that conforms to U.S. GAAP. We also present financial information that does not conform to U.S. GAAP, as our management believes it is useful to investors. In addition, non-U.S. GAAP financial measures are used by management to review and analyze our operating performance and, along with other data, as internal measures for setting annual budgets and forecasts, assessing financial performance, providing guidance and comparing our financial performance with our peers. Non-U.S. GAAP financial measures also provide management with additional means to understand and evaluate the core operating results and trends in our ongoing business by eliminating certain expenses and/or gains (which may not occur in each period presented) and other items that management believes might otherwise make comparisons of our ongoing business with prior periods and peers more difficult, obscure trends in ongoing operations or reduce management’s ability to make useful forecasts. Non-U.S. GAAP information does not purport to represent any similarly titled U.S. GAAP information and is not an indicator of our performance under U.S. GAAP. Investors are cautioned against placing undue reliance on these non-U.S. GAAP financial measures. Further, investors are urged to review and consider carefully the adjustments made by management to the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measure to arrive at these non-U.S. GAAP financial measures, described below.
The non-U.S. GAAP financial metrics exclude certain specified items (“Special Items”), including restructuring charges and restructuring associated costs, amortization of intangible assets and inventory step-up expense related to the acquisition of Liquibox, adjustments in the valuation of our "SEE Ventures" portfolio (which may include debt or equity investments), and other charges related to acquisitions and divestitures, gains and losses related to acquisitions and divestitures, special tax items or tax benefits (collectively, “Tax Special Items”) and certain other items. We evaluate unusual or special items on an individual basis. Our evaluation of whether to exclude an unusual or special item for purposes of determining our non-U.S. GAAP financial measures considers both the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the item, including among other things (i) its nature, (ii) whether or not it relates to our ongoing business operations, and (iii) whether or not we expect it to occur as part of our normal business on a regular basis. As of 2023, the Company is now including, within its definition of Special Items, amortization expenses of intangibles from the Liquibox acquisition and future significant acquisitions. The change is prospective and does not impact previously presented results. This change was made to better align the Company's definitions of Special Items with those of its peers, to better reflect the Company's operating performance, and to increase the usefulness of such measures for our stakeholders.
When we present non-U.S. GAAP forward-looking guidance, we do not also provide guidance for the most directly comparable U.S. GAAP financial measures, as they are not available without unreasonable effort due to the high variability, complexity, and low visibility with respect to certain Special Items, including gains and losses on the disposition of businesses, the ultimate outcome of certain legal or tax proceedings, foreign currency gains or losses resulting from the volatile currency market in Argentina, and other unusual gains and losses. These items are uncertain, depend on various factors, and could be material to our results computed in accordance with U.S. GAAP.
Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA Margin
Adjusted EBITDA is defined as Earnings before Interest Expense, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortization, adjusted to exclude the impact of Special Items. Management uses Adjusted EBITDA as one of many measures to assess the performance of the business. Additionally, Adjusted EBITDA is the performance metric used by the Company's chief operating decision maker to evaluate performance of our reportable segments. Adjusted EBITDA is also a metric used to determine performance under the Company's Annual Incentive Plan. We do not believe there are estimates underlying the calculation of Adjusted EBITDA, other than those inherent in our U.S. GAAP results of operations, which would render the use and presentation of Adjusted EBITDA misleading. While the nature and amount of individual Special Items vary from period to period, we believe our calculation of
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Adjusted EBITDA is applied consistently to all periods and, in conjunction with other U.S. GAAP and non-U.S. GAAP financial measures, Adjusted EBITDA provides a useful and consistent comparison of our Company's performance to other periods.
The following table shows a reconciliation of U.S. GAAP Net Earnings from continuing operations to non-U.S. GAAP Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations:
 Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)202320222021
Net earnings from continuing operations$339.3 $491.3 $491.2 
Interest expense, net263.0 162.3 167.8 
Income tax provision90.4 238.0 225.0 
Depreciation and amortization, net of adjustments(1)
239.6 236.8 232.2 
Special Items:   
Liquibox intangible amortization27.9 — — 
Liquibox inventory step-up amortization10.2 — — 
Restructuring charges
15.6 12.1 14.5 
Other restructuring associated costs
34.5 9.3 16.5 
Foreign currency exchange loss due to highly inflationary economies
23.1 8.8 3.6 
Loss on debt redemption and refinancing activities
13.2 11.2 18.6 
Impairment loss/fair value (gain) on equity investments, net— 30.6 (6.6)
Impairment of debt investment— — 8.0 
Contract terminations14.6 — — 
Charges related to acquisition and divestiture activity
28.3 3.1 2.6 
Gain on sale of Reflectix— — (45.3)
CEO severance6.1 — — 
Other Special Items0.8 6.7 3.5 
Pre-tax impact of Special Items174.3 81.8 15.4 
Non-U.S. GAAP Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations$1,106.6 $1,210.2 $1,131.6 
(1)Net of Liquibox intangible amortization of $28 million for the year ended December 31, 2023, which is included under Special Items.
The Company may also assess performance using Adjusted EBITDA Margin. Adjusted EBITDA Margin is calculated as Adjusted EBITDA divided by net sales. We believe that Adjusted EBITDA Margin is a useful measure to assess the profitability of sales made to third parties and the efficiency of our core operations.
Adjusted Net Earnings and Adjusted Earnings Per Share
Adjusted Net Earnings and Adjusted Earnings Per Share (“Adjusted EPS”) are also used by the Company to measure total company performance. Adjusted Net Earnings is defined as U.S. GAAP net earnings from continuing operations excluding the impact of Special Items. Adjusted EPS is defined as our Adjusted Net Earnings divided by the number of diluted shares outstanding. We believe that Adjusted Net Earnings and Adjusted EPS are useful measurements of Company performance, along with other U.S. GAAP and non-U.S. GAAP financial measures, because they incorporate non-cash items of depreciation and amortization, including share-based compensation, which impact the overall performance and net earnings of our business. Additionally, Adjusted Net Earnings and Adjusted EPS reflect the impact of our Adjusted Tax Rate and interest expense on a net and per share basis. While the nature and amount of individual Special Items vary from period to period, we believe our calculation of Adjusted Net Earnings and Adjusted EPS is applied consistently to all periods and, in conjunction with other U.S. GAAP and non-U.S. GAAP financial measures, Adjusted Net Earnings and Adjusted EPS provide a useful and consistent comparison of our Company's performance to other periods.
The following table shows a reconciliation of U.S. GAAP Net earnings and Diluted earnings per share from continuing operations to non-U.S. GAAP Adjusted net earnings and Adjusted EPS from continuing operations.
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 Year Ended December 31,
 202320222021
(In millions, except per share data)Net EarningsDiluted EPSNet EarningsDiluted EPSNet EarningsDiluted EPS
U.S. GAAP Net earnings and diluted EPS from continuing operations$339.3   $2.34   $491.3   $3.33 $491.2 $3.22 
Special Items(1)
122.0   0.84   113.7   0.77 49.6 0.33 
Non-U.S. GAAP Adjusted net earnings and adjusted diluted EPS from continuing operations$461.3   $3.18   $605.0   $4.10 $540.8   $3.55 
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding – Diluted
144.9   147.4   152.4 
 
 
(1)Includes pre-tax Special Items, plus/less Tax Special Items and the tax impact of Special Items as seen in the following calculation of non-U.S. GAAP Adjusted income tax rate.
Adjusted Tax Rate
We also present our adjusted income tax rate (“Adjusted Tax Rate”). The Adjusted Tax Rate is a measure of our U.S. GAAP effective tax rate, adjusted to exclude the tax impact from the Special Items that are excluded from our Adjusted Net Earnings and Adjusted EPS metrics as well as expense or benefit from any special taxes or Tax Special Items. The Adjusted Tax Rate is an indicator of the taxes on our core business. The tax circumstances and effective tax rate in the specific countries where the Special Items occur will determine the impact (positive or negative) to the Adjusted Tax Rate. While the nature and amount of Tax Special Items vary from period to period, we believe our calculation of the Adjusted Tax Rate is applied consistently to all periods and, in conjunction with our U.S. GAAP effective income tax rate, the Adjusted Tax Rate provides a useful and consistent comparison of the impact that tax expense has on our Company's performance.
The following table shows our calculation of the non-U.S. GAAP Adjusted income tax rate:
 Year Ended December 31,
(In millions)202320222021
U.S. GAAP Earnings before income tax provision from continuing operations$429.7 $729.3 $716.2 
Pre-tax impact of Special Items174.3 81.8 15.4 
Non-U.S. GAAP Adjusted Earnings before income tax provision from continuing operations$604.0 $811.1 $731.6 
U.S. GAAP Income tax provision from continuing operations$90.4 $238.0 $225.0 
Tax Special Items(1)
20.0 (49.4)(31.9)
Tax impact of Special Items(2)
32.3 17.5 (2.3)
Non-U.S. GAAP Adjusted Income tax provision from continuing operations$142.7 $206.1 $190.8 
U.S. GAAP Effective income tax rate21.0 %32.6 %31.4 %
Non-U.S. GAAP Adjusted income tax rate23.6 %25.4 %26.1 %
 
  
(1)For the year ended December 31, 2023, Tax Special Items reflect adjustments related to the settlement of the IRS audit partially offset by accruals for uncertain tax positions. For the year ended December 31, 2022, Tax Special Items primarily reflect accruals for uncertain tax positions. For the year ended December 31, 2021, Tax Special Items consist primarily of accruals for uncertain tax positions and revaluation of deferred tax assets for foreign legislation changes.
(2)The tax rate used to calculate the tax impact of Special Items is based on the jurisdiction in which the item was recorded.
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Organic and Constant Dollar Measures
In our “Net Sales by Geographic Region,” “Net Sales by Segment,” and in some of the discussions and tables that follow, we exclude the impact of foreign currency translation when presenting net sales information, which we define as “constant dollar”, and we exclude acquisitions in the first year after closing, divestiture activity from the time of sale, and the impact of foreign currency translation when presenting net sales information, which we define as “organic.” Changes in net sales excluding the impact of foreign currency translation and/or acquisition and divestiture activity are non-U.S. GAAP financial measures. As a worldwide business, it is important that we consider the effects of foreign currency translation when we view our results and plan our strategies. Nonetheless, we cannot control changes in foreign currency exchange rates. Consequently, when our management analyzes our financial results including performance metrics such as sales, cost of sales or selling, general and administrative expense, to measure the core performance of our business, we may exclude the impact of foreign currency translation by translating our current period results at prior period foreign currency exchange rates. We also may exclude the impact of foreign currency translation when making incentive compensation determinations. As a result, our management believes that these presentations are useful internally and may be useful to investors.
Refer to these specific tables presented later in our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations for reconciliations of these non-U.S. GAAP financial measures to their most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measures.
Free Cash Flow
In addition to net cash provided by operating activities, we use free cash flow as a useful measure of performance and an indication of the strength and ability of our operations to generate cash. We define free cash flow as cash provided by operating activities less capital expenditures (which is classified as an investing activity). Free cash flow is not defined under U.S. GAAP. Therefore, free cash flow should not be considered a substitute for net income or cash flow data prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP and may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies. Free cash flow does not represent residual cash available for discretionary expenditures, as certain debt servicing requirements or other non-discretionary expenditures are not deducted from this measure.
Refer to the specific table presented later in our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations under Analysis of Historical Cash Flow for reconciliation of this non-U.S. GAAP financial measure to its most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure.
Net Debt
In addition to total debt, we use Net Debt, which we define as total debt less cash and cash equivalents, as a useful measure of our total debt exposure. Net Debt is not defined under U.S. GAAP. Therefore, Net Debt should not be considered a substitute for amounts owed to creditors or other balance sheet information prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP, and it may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies.
Refer to the specific table presented later in our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations under Outstanding Indebtedness for reconciliation of this non-U.S. GAAP financial measure to its most directly comparable U.S. GAAP measure.
Executive Summary for 2023
Throughout 2023, our end markets were challenged as we faced multiple headwinds including soft retail demand in the Food markets and continued market pressures and destocking in the industrial and fulfillment sectors. Pricing pressures increased in 2023 as consumers and customers reacted to lingering inflation and economic uncertainty which led customers to pull inventory below historical levels and reduce capital spending. While automation, digital and sustainability continue to be key enablers of long-term growth, we shifted our focus to address these current market dynamics.
We are reevaluating our solutions portfolio and go-to-market strategies, with a focus on meeting our customers’ evolving packaging needs in our core Food and Protective markets. In 2023, we made strategic decisions to close several businesses and continue to evaluate the portfolio for further areas to optimize and unlock value. We balanced our innovation efforts between long-term higher risk and reward projects and shorter-term projects that address our customers’ more immediate needs and continue to lead with automation solutions, providing our customers with a single point of contact for both materials and equipment.
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In February 2023, we acquired Liquibox for approximately $1.17 billion which has accelerated our fast-growing fluids and liquids business. Liquibox is a pioneer, innovator and manufacturer of Bag-in-Box sustainable liquids packaging and dispensing solutions for food, beverage, consumer goods and industrial end markets. With Cryovac and Liquibox technologies converging, we are well-positioned to capitalize on new opportunities in areas such as ready-to-drink liquids, consumer packaged goods, sauces and condiments, wine and spirits and more.
In August of 2023, we introduced the new 3-year CTO2Grow Program, which seeks to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of our solutions-focused go-to-market organization, optimize our portfolio with a focus on automation, digital and sustainable solutions, streamline our supply chain footprint and drive SG&A productivity. The CTO2Grow Program aims to drive annualized savings in the range of $140 to $160 million by the end of 2025. The total cash cost of this program is estimated to be in the range of $140 to $160 million. While we have made good progress on the CTO2Grow Program and portfolio optimization during 2023, we are accelerating the program to get ahead of future market impacts. See Note 12, “Restructuring Activities,” for additional details regarding the Company’s restructuring programs.
Current Trends and Forward Looking Expectations
We expect overall demand for our solutions in 2024 to be consistent with the prior year as our end markets will continue to be challenged with no near-term catalysts for growth. We expect our fluids and liquids business to be the fastest growing part of our portfolio driven by continued progress with Liquibox and acceleration of new customers and applications with Cryovac. We have seen the Protective segment demand begin to stabilize and we are planning to continue to expand our fiber-based solutions.
Our automation solutions, which experienced strong revenue growth in 2023, have a muted outlook for 2024 as bookings have trended down due to economic uncertainties and higher interest rates impacting our customers. The pricing environment is expected to be more challenging in 2024 as competition continues to intensify.
We expect cost savings from the CTO2Grow Program as well as incremental productivity benefits to offset expected labor inflation. We expect the benefits and savings associated with the CTO2Grow Program to drive operational efficiencies and benefits in 2024 and beyond.
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Highlights of Financial Performance
Below are the highlights of our financial performance for the three years ended December 31, 2023, 2022 and 2021.
Year Ended December 31,% Change
(In millions, except per share amounts)2023202220212023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
Net sales$5,488.9 $5,641.9 $5,533.8 (2.7)%2.0 %
Gross profit$1,641.3 $1,772.9 $1,680.9 (7.4)%5.5 %
As a % of net sales29.9 %31.4 %30.4 %
Operating profit $754.6 $944.8 $900.9 (20.1)%4.9 %
As a % of net sales13.7 %16.7 %16.3 %
Net earnings from continuing operations$339.3 $491.3 $491.2 (30.9)%— %
Gain on sale of discontinued operations, net of tax2.3 0.3 15.6 #(98.1)%
Net earnings $341.6 $491.6 $506.8 (30.5)%(3.0)%
Basic:
Continuing operations$2.35 $3.37 $3.26 (30.3)%3.4 %
Discontinued operations0.02 — 0.10 ##
Net earnings per common share - basic$2.37 $3.37 $3.36 (29.7)%0.3 %
Diluted:
Continuing operations$2.34 $3.33 $3.22 (29.7)%3.4 %
Discontinued operations0.02 — 0.10 ##
Net earnings per common share - diluted$2.36 $3.33 $3.32 (29.1)%0.3 %
Weighted average number of common shares outstanding:
Basic144.4 145.9 150.9 
Diluted144.9 147.4 152.4 
Non-U.S. GAAP Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations(1)
$1,106.6 $1,210.2 $1,131.6 (8.6)%6.9 %
Non-U.S. GAAP Adjusted EPS from continuing operations(2)
$3.18 $4.10 $3.55 (22.4)%15.5 %
 
#    Denotes where percentage change is not meaningful.
(1)See “Non-U.S. GAAP Information” for a reconciliation of U.S. GAAP Net earnings from continuing operations to non-U.S. GAAP Consolidated Adjusted EBITDA from continuing operations.
(2)See “Non-U.S. GAAP Information” for a reconciliation of U.S. GAAP Net earnings and diluted earnings per share from continuing operations to non-U.S. GAAP Adjusted Net Earnings and Adjusted EPS from continuing operations.
Foreign Currency Translation Impact on Consolidated Financial Results
Since we are a U.S. domiciled company, we translate our foreign currency-denominated financial results into U.S. dollars. Due to the changes in the value of foreign currencies relative to the U.S. dollar, translating our financial results from foreign currencies to U.S. dollars may result in a favorable or unfavorable impact. Historically, the most significant currencies that have impacted the translation of our consolidated financial results are the euro, the Australian dollar, the Mexican peso, the Canadian dollar, the British pound, the Chinese Renminbi, the Brazilian real, the New Zealand dollar and the Argentine peso.
The following table presents the approximate favorable or (unfavorable) impact that foreign currency translation had on certain components of our consolidated financial results: 
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(In millions)2023 vs. 20222022 vs. 2021
Net sales$(100.1)$(224.2)
Cost of sales86.6 165.9 
Selling, general and administrative expenses4.5 23.3 
Non-U.S. GAAP Adjusted EBITDA11.1 (33.4)
Net Sales by Geographic Region
The following tables present the components of the change in net sales by geographic region for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared with 2022 and for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared with 2021.
(In millions)AmericasEMEAAPACTotal
2022 Net Sales$3,718.5 65.9 %$1,160.0 20.6 %$763.4 13.5 %$5,641.9 100.0 %
Price(16.1)(0.4)%43.0 3.7 %21.0 2.7 %47.9 0.8 %
Volume(1)
(257.9)(7.0)%(103.3)(8.9)%(24.6)(3.2)%(385.8)(6.8)%
Total organic change (non-U.S. GAAP)(274.0)(7.4)%(60.3)(5.2)%(3.6)(0.5)%(337.9)(6.0)%
Acquisition204.8 5.5 %50.5 4.4 %29.7 3.9 %285.0 5.1 %
Total constant dollar change (non-U.S. GAAP)
(69.2)(1.9)%(9.8)(0.8)%26.1 3.4 %(52.9)(0.9)%
Foreign currency translation(71.0)(1.9)%(0.9)(0.1)%(28.2)(3.7)%(100.1)(1.8)%
Total change (U.S. GAAP)(140.2)(3.8)%(10.7)(0.9)%(2.1)(0.3)%(153.0)(2.7)%
2023 Net Sales$3,578.3 65.2 %$1,149.3 20.9 %$761.3 13.9 %$5,488.9 100.0 %

(In millions)AmericasEMEAAPACTotal
2021 Net Sales$3,522.3 63.6 %$1,200.0 21.7 %$811.5 14.7 %$5,533.8 100.0 %
Price521.4 14.8 %136.7 11.4 %39.9 4.9 %698.0 12.6 %
Volume(1)
(255.2)(7.2)%(55.2)(4.6)%(20.0)(2.4)%(330.4)(6.0)%
Total organic change (non-U.S. GAAP)266.2 7.6 %81.5 6.8 %19.9 2.5 %367.6 6.6 %
(Divestiture) Acquisition(41.0)(1.2)%5.7 0.5 %— — %(35.3)(0.6)%
Total constant dollar change (non-U.S. GAAP)
225.2 6.4 %87.2 7.3 %19.9 2.5 %332.3 6.0 %
Foreign currency translation(29.0)(0.8)%(127.2)(10.6)%(68.0)(8.4)%(224.2)(4.0)%
Total change (U.S. GAAP)196.2 5.6 %(40.0)(3.3)%(48.1)(5.9)%108.1 2.0 %
2022 Net Sales$3,718.5 65.9 %$1,160.0 20.6 %$763.4 13.5 %$5,641.9 100.0 %
 
(1)Our volume reported above includes the net impact of changes in unit volume as well as the period-to-period change in the mix of products sold.
Net Sales by Segment
The following tables present the components of change in net sales by reportable segment for the year ended December 31, 2023 compared with 2022, and for the year ended December 31, 2022 compared with 2021.  
42


(In millions)FoodProtectiveTotal Company
2022 Net Sales$3,317.2 58.8 %$2,324.7 41.2 %$5,641.9 100.0 %
Price70.2 2.1 %(22.3)(1.0)%47.9 0.8 %
Volume(1)
(58.8)(1.8)%(327.0)(14.0)%(385.8)(6.8)%
Total organic change (non-U.S. GAAP)11.4 0.3 %(349.3)(15.0)%(337.9)(6.0)%
Acquisition285.0 8.6 %— — %285.0 5.1 %
Total constant dollar change (non-U.S. GAAP)
296.4 8.9 %(349.3)(15.0)%(52.9)(0.9)%
Foreign currency translation(93.9)(2.8)%(6.2)